Study terms - Chapter 3 & 4 -Resting membrane and action potential.doc

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Neuroscience - CLA
Course Code
NSCI 1051

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RESTING MEMBRANE AND ACTION POTENTIALS Chapter 3 & 4 Cations A positively charged ion Anions A negatively charged ion Resting potential More negative inside than outside Depolarization The inside of the membrane going from negative to positive Saltatory conduction Action potential skipping from node to node down a myelinated axon Action potential Nerve impulse, rapid reversal of the inside of the membrane becoming positively charged Ion channel Protein molecules with pores that allow ions of specified size and charge to pass through Ion gating Opening and closing of channel is a probabilistic process. The probability of opening or closing is due to: Ion pump A protein that transports ions across a membrane at the expense of metabolic energy Ion selectivity A property of ion channels that are selectively permeable to some ions and not to others Diffusion The temperature-dependent movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to low concentration, resulting in a more even distribution Electrical current The rate of movement of electrical charge (amp) Voltage (electrical potential) The force exerted on an electrically charged particle Membrane potential The voltage across a cell membrane Ionic equilibrium Exact balance of an ionic concentration gradient Voltage gated sodium channels • Protein that forms a pore in the membrane that is highly selective to Na+ ions • Closed at resting potential • Opens when depolarized to let Na+ through • Open with little delay, stay open for about 1msec • Cannot be opened again by depolarization • Blocked by toxins (puffer fish), or disorders Sodium/potassium pumps Controls how much sodium and potassium crosses the cellular membrane Pushes 2 potassium ions (K+) into the
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