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Neuroscience - CLA
NSCI 1051

LANGUAGESTUDYTERMSPenfields investigations of language during cortical stimulationStudy language function in brains of living humans Electrical brain stimulation and PET Three main effects Vocalizations speech arrest speech difficulties similar to aphasia Motor cortex Immediate speech arrest Brocas area Speech stopped after strong stimulation speech hesitation from weak stimulation Posterior parietal lobe near Sylvian fissure and temporal lobe Word confusion and speech arrest George Ojemann Small parts of cortex naming reading repeating facial movements Speech arrest when motor cortex or inferior temporal gyrus is stimulated unable to speakAphasia know the definition symptoms and lesions associated with the following subtypes Aphasia Partialcomplete loss of language abilities following brain damage GreekRoman Empires Tongue control speech Sixteenth century Speech impairment tongue not affected Brocas aphasia motor nonfluent aphasia Cant process grammar in sentencesDifficulty speaking pause to search for words repeat overlearned things difficulty repeating words Paraphasic errors Comprehension is good Wernickes aphasia Can produce speech but not comprehend Whatever modality couldnt match it with words in lexicon Severe impairment in auditory comprehension Speech while fluent is semantically inappropriate and paraphasic Sometimes called cocktail hour speech Long grammatically well formed utterances that lack meaning Paraphasias Left superior temporal gyrus Conduction aphasiaComparison with Brocas aphasia Wernickes aphasia Comprehension good speech fluent Difficulty repeating words Symptoms Repetition substitutesomits words paraphasic errors cannot repeat function nonsense words polysyllabic words Lesion of fibers composing arcuate fasciculus Damage to the left dorsal STG or the temporoparietal junction
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