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Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide.docx

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Temple University
PSY 1167

Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide Chap 1 • Descriptive Statistics- Organize and summarize observations • Inferential Statistics- draw conclusions, interpret data • Statistics- science of classifying, organizing, and analyzing data • Sample- a subset of a population • Statistic- describes a sample • Parameter- describes a population • Independent variable- systematically manipulated by the researcher • Dependent Variable- the outcome variable that is measured or observed • Experimental Group- exposed to independent variable • Control Group- exposed to all other conditions except the independent variable • Psychological Experiment- Actively manipulate environment in order to observe effect on behavior • Continuous Scale- allows for fractional amounts and so decimals make sense (height) • Discrete Scale- Can’t be decimals • Interval- used with quantitative data, scale with equal intervals (no true zero) • Nominal- used with qualitative data, female, male, republican (named) • Ordinal- used with ranked data, 1 , 2 , fresh, soph (ranked) • Ratio- used with quantitative data, true zero • Qualitative Data- categories or classes represented by words (yes/no) or letters (M/F) or numerical codes (0/1) • Quantitative Data- amount or count represented by numbers • Ranked Data- numbers or words that represent relative standing within a group Chap 2 o Apparent Limit -Extend from the smallest unit of measurement to the largest for a given interval -Gaps of 1 between adjacent intervals (20-29, 30-39) o Real Limit -No gaps when determining the actual width of a class interval, -Extend upper and lower limits by .5 o Relative Frequency Distributions -Shows proportion or percentage of the total number of observations To Calculate: -Proportion: divide frequency (f) of each class by the total frequency count (n), ranges from 0-1, total sum=1 -Percentage: multiply each proportion by 100, ranges 0-100%, total sum=100% o Cumulative Frequency Distributions: -Shows total number of observations in each class and all lower ranked classes, start at
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