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PSY 1167
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Midterm

# Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide.docx

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Temple University

Psychology

PSY 1167

Retired

Fall

Description

Statistics Exam 1 Study Guide
Chap 1
• Descriptive Statistics- Organize and summarize observations
• Inferential Statistics- draw conclusions, interpret data
• Statistics- science of classifying, organizing, and analyzing data
• Sample- a subset of a population
• Statistic- describes a sample
• Parameter- describes a population
• Independent variable- systematically manipulated by the researcher
• Dependent Variable- the outcome variable that is measured or observed
• Experimental Group- exposed to independent variable
• Control Group- exposed to all other conditions except the independent variable
• Psychological Experiment- Actively manipulate environment in order to observe effect on
behavior
• Continuous Scale- allows for fractional amounts and so decimals make sense (height)
• Discrete Scale- Can’t be decimals
• Interval- used with quantitative data, scale with equal intervals (no true zero)
• Nominal- used with qualitative data, female, male, republican (named)
• Ordinal- used with ranked data, 1 , 2 , fresh, soph (ranked)
• Ratio- used with quantitative data, true zero
• Qualitative Data- categories or classes represented by words (yes/no) or letters (M/F) or
numerical codes (0/1)
• Quantitative Data- amount or count represented by numbers • Ranked Data- numbers or words that represent relative standing within a group
Chap 2
o Apparent Limit
-Extend from the smallest unit of measurement to the largest for a given interval
-Gaps of 1 between adjacent intervals (20-29, 30-39)
o Real Limit
-No gaps when determining the actual width of a class interval,
-Extend upper and lower limits by .5
o Relative Frequency Distributions
-Shows proportion or percentage of the total number of observations
To Calculate:
-Proportion: divide frequency (f) of each class by the total frequency count (n), ranges
from 0-1, total sum=1
-Percentage: multiply each proportion by 100, ranges 0-100%, total sum=100%
o Cumulative Frequency Distributions:
-Shows total number of observations in each class and all lower ranked classes, start at

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