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Midterm

Psychology 2301 Spring 2013 study guide exam 1.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 2301
Professor
Taylor
Semester
Spring

Description
Psychology 2301 Review Midterm Exam #1 Chapter 1 • Original sin- St. Augustine, all humans are born with selfish nature • Tabula Rasa (blank slate)- John Locke • Jean-Jacque Rousseau- innate purity, born with capacity for good Gesell -Added cameras & one way mirrors to observe kids, did interviews -Biological (genetic) reason for systematic maturation > determined by genotype ← -Maturation: the gradual unfolding of genetically programmed sequential pattern of change Domains of Developmental Psychology: 1. Physical: changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body. 2. Cognitive: changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving, and other intellectual skills 3. Social: changes in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to others • Goals of developmental science -To describe, explain, predict, and to influence human development from conception to death • Theory: logically related concepts, seek to describe behavior and explain why they take place • A good theory is: 1. Concise 2. Testable-falsifiable 3. Heuristic (Enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves) Heuristic theory builds on itself • Nature-nurture debate- the debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experimental factors to development • Continuity vs. Discontinuity debate- the question of whether age related change is primarily a mater of amount or degree (continuity) or more commonly involves changes in type or kind (discontinuity) • Activity vs. Passivity. Research Methods: Survey- data collection method in which participants respond to questions Correlational Research: descriptive, two or more variables compared to see how they’re related a. Naturalistic Observations: -Observe behavior as it naturally occurs (con is that it may be too particular) b. Case Studies -An in-depth examination of a single individual -Reinforcement c. Laboratory Observations -Child is stressed -Controlled setting -Lacks ecological validity • Experiment- a study that tests a casual hypothesis • Ethnography- a detailed description of a single culture or context • Cross-sectional design- a research design in which groups of people of different ages are compared • Longitudinal design- a research design in which people in a single group are studied at different times in their lives • Sequential design- combines both ^ Freudian theory -Unconscious -Sexual urges are the foundation a. Instincts: -Eros: instinct to sustain life -Tharatos: unconscious desire to die b. Personality -Id: legislator, impulsive energy (irrational) -Ego: Executive, reality principle, good decisions (rational) -Superego: judicial *stages in notebook Erikson -Psychosocial development -Agreed with and modified much of Freud’s theory -Agreed with basic instincts, ego is strongest component -8 stages, crisis/conflict • Trust vs. mistrust- just because we fail at one point does not mean we can’t fix it at another point in life (trust in caregiver, and can fix anything once independent) • Identity vs. role confusion-fidelity, adaption of sense of self to pubertal changes, consideration of future choices, achievement of a more mature sexual identity and search for new values Watson – believed that through manipulation of the environment, children can be trained to do or be anything (behaviorism) • Reinforcement- anything that follows a b
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