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Psychology 2013 study guide exam 3.docx

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PSY 2301

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Psychology 2301 Study guide exam #3 The topics, terms and names listed below represent the main areas to be covered on the exam. Good luck.  Parenting styles (Baumrind) • Characteristic strategies that parents use to manage children’s behavior • Four aspects of family functioning: 1. Warmth/nurturance - Warmth is associated with social and academic competence - Parental hostility is linked to declining school performance and higher risk of delinquency 2. Clarity and consistency of rules - Clear rules, consistently applied, children are much less likely to be defiant or noncompliant - Best that parents are not overly restrictive, explain things to the child, and avoid physical punishments 3. Level of expectations - Children who’s parents with high expectations fare better, have higher self esteem, and show more generosity and altruism towards others 4. Communication between parent and child - Open and regular communication between parent and child has been linked to more positive outcomes, more emotionally and socially mature - Parent need to convey that what the child has to say is worth listening to, and that their ideas are important and should be considered when making family decisions  Authoritative: • High in nurturance, expectations, control, and communication • These children do best in school, higher self-esteem, more independent, altruistic, like to comply with parental requests, achievement oriented  Authoritarian: • Low in nurturance and communication, high in control and expectations. • Physical punishment. • Kids are more likely to be resentful, angry, lacking independence, aggressive or out of control, low self esteem, less skilled with peers • 2 best out of 4 types in school  Permissive: • High in nurturance and low in expectations, control, and communication • Not as well in school as above types • More aggressive, immature, less likely to take responsibility, less independent  Uninvolved parenting: • Low in nurturance, expectations, control, and communication • Antisocial, impulsive, less achievement oriented  Discipline (Hoffmen): • Induction-Talks about what you did wrong, why you did it, what you can do to improve and prevent it. If you do what I say you get more affection. Kids internalize message, most moral kids. • Power assertion- Move child away from situation. Parent is more powerful/larger/stronger. Kids show aggressive behavior and take after parents. • Love withdrawal- “Can’t look at you”, deny children access to them/their support. Kid has anxiety, emotional outbursts.  Cultural differences in parenting styles • White- authoritative • AfricanAmerican- authoritarian • Asian- authoritarian • Authoritative parenting is more common in the middle class and in intact families than in single parent or step-parent families • Authoritative parenting has positive outcomes for all ethnicities, more effective in white and Hispanic • Authoritarian style produces highest-scoring children (Asians score higher than whites on almost all measures of cognitive competence), also reduces chances of substance abuse in whites and blacks  Divorce • Woman’s income drops an average of 40-50% after a divorce • 50% of children who are born will have their lives disrupted by divorce • Children typically stay in a single-parent household for 5 years until the parent re-marries (more likely that father moves out) • 24% of children in single-parent home • 60% of the time, family moves from stability to poverty • Parents experience mood swings, psychological distress, hostility, depression • Single-parent families are mother headed, 6% are father headed • PositiveAspects of a Mother headed single parent household: - Self-sufficient - Close relationship - Maturity • Aspects of a Father headed single parent household - Role shift, father is caretaker - Boys have more mature relationship - Girls freedom declines, more difficult going through puberty - More economically stable • After 5 years, parents will experience remarriage • 67% of 2 marriages fail • Financial situation improves • Kids face challenge of new adult/siblings, mother children and stepfather is more typical – boys experience this best because of father figure, girls don’t like that it takes away mother’s attention • Younger kids are distressed, hoped parents would get back together • Father children and stepmother – stepmother is seen as disruptive to closeness they had with the dad, more likely to step in as discipline figure, kids are more likely to adjust because of interaction, boys like it because they have their father and don’t argue with mom • If other part is hostile or disruptive, kids have harder time adjusting • Blended families – both mother and father have children. Kids middle aged adjust worse than older/younger, little ones get attention still. Still trying to figure out how to discipline kids. With older kids, they’re independent enough to physically remove themselves. 2 years to work out this system  Divorce and children’s behavior • Within the first few years after a divorce, children typically exhibit declines in school performance and show more aggressive, defiant, negative, and depressed behavior • Children loses sense of stability, routine, and income • By adolescence they are more likely to engage in criminal behavior • Children living in step parent families also have higher rates of delinquency, more behavior problems in school, and lower grades • Higher risk of mental health problems in adulthood • Lack financial resources, and emotional support necessary to succeed in college • Fears of intimacy in relationships • More likely to divorce as an adult • Children growing up in single-parent families are about twice as likely to drop out of high school, twice as likely to have a child before age 20, and less likely to have a steady job in their late teens or early 20s • Preschoolers who’s mothers are single teenagers display less advanced cognitive and social development than their peers • 2 factors affect divorce: Gender andAge • Girls adjust to divorce better than boys • Mom and son in the first 2 years are conflicting, boy is aggressive, moms clamp down • Typically doesn’t stop until they see a therapist (coercive pattern of reaction) • Moms and daughters become closer, daughters are confidants • Mother displaces anger at boy because of father • Takes 2 years for things to go back to normal, takes longer if mother and father continue to argue • Older kids adapt better, younger won’t understand and blame themselves • Aggressive behavior and depression • Kids of divorce are more likely to have adjustment problems • By the end of 2 years, same level of caring than families that didn’t divorce  Theories of gender development: • Freud(Psychoanalytical)- “Phallic Stage” Boys become attracted to their mother but once they realize that’s inappropriate they identify with their father, identify with father because of castration anxiety(fear of emasculation). Girls develop the alexra complex. Identify with their mother in a way to get close to their father. Their super ego and sexual identity is less developed than boys. Don’t have the castration anxiety so they are more flexible. • Kohlberg- Cognitive development is responsible for gender role development. Gender Constancy- kids are really interested in their gender, they understand it and want to know more about it. Develops by 7 years old, they’re especially interested in their gender and their behavior becomes more gender tied. Gender Identity- the child understands whether they are a boy or girl and what the difference between the two is. Gender Consistency- My gender is my gender and it will stay that way no matter what the situation is; situations can’t change what they are. Gender stability- from now until forever I’m going to be that gender; it’s a stable, life-long characteristic. • Gender schema theory- gender schema is an organized body of knowledge that helps them understand what behaviors of theirs associate with their gender. The gender schema begins to develop as soon as the child notices the difference between male and female, knows his own gender, and can label the two groups with some consistency all of which happens by age 2 or 3.  Significant areas of physical development in middle childhood • Between 6 and 12, children grow 2 to 3 inches and 6 pounds each year • Large-muscle coordination improves, better at skills like bike riding • Strength and speed increase, hand-eye coordination improves • Fine motor coordination improves, makes writing possible, playing instruments, drawing, cutting etc. • Maturation of wrist, happens faster in girls than boys • By 12, girls have attained 94% of their adult height, boys only reached 84% • Girls have slightly more body fat, less muscle tissue than boys • Girls are better coordinated but slower and somewhat weaker, therefore girls outperform boys in activities requiring coordinated movement and boys do better with things that require strength and speed  Major areas of brain development in middle childhood: • 2 major growth spurts in the brain, first between age 6 and 8, second between 10 and 12 • Both spurts involve development of new synapses, increases in thickness of cerebral cortex, • First spurt is in sensory and motor areas, second is in cerebral cortex and frontal lobes • Sensory / Motor = improvement in fine motor skills, eye-hand coordination • Association areas = parts of the brain where sensory, motor, and intellectual functions are linked. Nerve cells in this area are complete
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