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PBHL 2102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Polychlorinated Biphenyl, Demographic Transition, Zoonosis


Department
Public Health
Course Code
PBHL 2102
Professor
Dr.Mirlohi
Study Guide
Midterm

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Population and environment 3 P’s
Poverty
Population
Pollution
Environmental Health- A topic that is closely allied with environmental health and is a subset of
broader environmental health concerns.
WHO definition- Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological
factors external to a person, and all the related actors impacting behaviors. It compasses the
assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is
targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments.
Federal
In the 1970s the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was found to address environmental
concerns at the federal government.
State
PA Department of health
PA department of environmental protection.
Pennsylvania IPM Program-promoting integrated pest management in both agricultural and
urban
situations.
Environmental Risk Transition- Has been used to characterize changes in environmental risk
transitions that happen as a consequence of economic development in the less developed regions
of the world.
Human populations threaten to overwhelm many resources in certain areas.
Increases in fertility and reductions in mortality have contributed to population growth
In 2050…. India, China, US will be the highest populated countries in that order.
Doubling Time- Is the amount of time it takes for a given quantity to double in size or value at a
constant growth rate.
Population Dynamics- Refers to the change interrelationships among the set of variables that
influence the demographic makeup of populations as well as the variables that influence the
growth and decline of population sizes.
Factors that relate to the population growth…..
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Fertility
Death Rates
Migration
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)- Hypothetical estimate of completed fertility. This rate would
indicate how many births a woman would have by the end of her reproductive life.
During the baby boom era at the end of the 1950s, the US fertility rate exceeded 3.5 births per
woman.
Currently, Western European countries have low fertility rates; Also, the rates are declining in
most regions of the developing world.
Many of the rapidly industrializing countries have a higher birth rate like in China, Latin
American countries, and African countries.
Mortality has declined in both industrialized and less developed countries for adults and infants.
Estimation shows that in 2050 1/3 of the US population growth will be from migration.
Demographic Transition- Is the alteration over time in a population’s fertility, mortality, and
makeup.
Graph 1 represents when most o the population is young meanwhile fertility and mortality rates
are high.
Graph 2 shows a drop-in mortality rates that occur during the demographic transition at this stage
fertility rates remain high, and there is a rapid increase in population, particularly among the
younger age groups.
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Epidemiologic Transition- Used to describe a shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality
from causes related primarily to infectious and communicable diseases to causes associated with
chronic, degenerative diseases.
The effects of rapid growth of the world’s population include:
Urbanization
Overtaxing carrying capacity
Food insecurity
Loss of biodiversity
Carrying Capacity- Is the population that an area will support without undergoing environmental
deterioration.
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