[PBHL 2203] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (12 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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Temple
PBHL 2203
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Health Psychology
Health Psychology- is a new field devoted to understanding psychological influences on how
people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill.
Health psychologists study issues and develop interventions to help people stay well or get over
illness.
In 1948 the WHO defined health as a complete state of physical, mental, social wellbeing and
not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
The WHO had a very advanced meaning for health at this time, the organization didn’t just
define health as the absence of illness. Health is recognized to be an achievement involving
balance among physical, mental, and social wellbeing.
Health psychology is concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the life span. Health
psychologists focus on health promotion and maintenance which includes such issues as how to
get children to develop good health habits, how to promote regular exercise, and how to design a
media campaign to get people to improve their diets.
Health psychologists also study the psychological aspects of the prevention and treatment of
illness. They can teach employees to manage stress in a high stress occupation.
They focus on etiology (cause of disease) and correlates of health, illness, and dysfunction. Also,
they focus on the behavioral and social factors that contribute to health, illness, and dysfunction
such as alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, the wearing of seat belts and ways of coping
with stress.
Finally, they analyze and attempt to improve the health care system and the formulation of health
policy.
The Mind Body Relationship:
In the 1600s the humoral theory of illness was finally put to rest using science and medicine.
Mental health was incorporated when Sigmund Freud began working on conversion hysteria.
The unconscious conflicts can produce particular physical disturbances that symbolize repressed
physical conflicts.
Other researchers after Freud helped shaped the Psychosomatic Medicine field by offering
profiles of particular disorders believed to be psychosomatic in origin caused by emotional
conflicts.
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The idea that mind and the body together determine health and illness logically implies a model
for studying. The biopsychosocial model assumes that health and illnesses are consequences of
the interplay of the biological, psychological, and social factors.
The biomedical model has governed the thinking of most health practitioners for centuries
maintaining that all illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant somatic bodily process like
biochemical imbalances or neurophysiological abnormalities. The biomedical model assumes
that psychological and social processes are largely irrelevant to the disease process.
The biomedical model focuses on a single factor which focus on the medical side of the illness
rather than recognizing the more importance of more general social and psychological processes.
Also, the biomedical model considers the mind and body to be spate entities. The final flaw is
that the biomedical model emphasizes illness over health.
The biopsychosocial model maintains that the mind and body can’t be distinguished in matters of
health and illnesses. The model focuses on both health and illness focusing on social and
psychological needs.
Researchers have adopted a Systems Theory approach to health and illness. Systems theory
maintains that all levels of organization are lined to each other hierarchically. Change in one
level will result in other levels.
In the past 5 decades, there has been a shift from acute disorders including tuberculosis,
pneumonia, and other infectious diseases to chronic illness which include heart disease, cancer,
and diabetes are the main contributes to disability and death.
Morbidity- refers to the number of cases of disease that exist in a point of time.
Mortality- refers to the number of deaths due to particular causes.
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