BIOL 3309 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tropical And Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests, 30Th Parallel North, Tropical Rainforest

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Chapter 1
Ernst Haeckel was the first to use the term ecology
Carl Linnaeus
binomial nomenclature: Genus species
Alexander von Humboldt
organisms are connected
biogeography
Charles Darwin
theory of evolution by natural selection
provided a mechanism for interpreting patterns in the distribution and abundance
of species
natural selection
Ecology: The study of relationships between organisms and the environment
Biotic factors- Plants, animals, fungi, bacteria etc.
Abiotic factors- Temperature, water, nutrients, physical structure
Types of ecology:
Physiological Ecology: Evolution of physiological and anatomical mechanisms by
which organisms solve problems imposed by physical and chemical variation in
the environment
Behavioral Ecology: Evolution of behaviors that allow animals to survive and
reproduce in face of environmental variation
Population ecology: Factors that influence population structure and processes
Population: Group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined
area
Community: association of interacting species
Ecosystem: Includes all organisms living in an area, and the physical environment
with which these organisms interact
Region: larger areas comprising lots of landscapes subject to largescale and
longterm processes
Landscape ecology: Exchanges among ecosystems
Biosphere: largest level of ecological organization
SCIENTIFIC METHOD:
Information
Question
Hypothesis: a possible answer to the question, testable
Prediction: a falsifiable test of hypothesis
Test of hypothesis
Chapter 2 Life on Land
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Natural History (Keyword history): Study of how organisms in a particular area are
influenced by factors such as climate, soils, predators, competitors, and evolutionary
history
Collect
Observe
Name and categorize
Display and archive
Ecology: Study of relationships between organisms and the environment
Explain
Understand
Test
Natural history is key to defining biomes
Weather: The temperature and moisture conditions for a specific place and time
Climate: The long-term pattern of weather in locality, region, or even the entire globe
Tilt of the earth's axis affects intensity of incoming solar radiation
Tilted 23.5 degrees
Axis tilt leads to spread of sunlight over greater area, less energy per unit area
Large variation at poles
Small variation in tropics:
Small variation in day length and temperature
Direct solar radiation from 23.5 N to 23.5 S
Hadley cell
Hot air rises, cool air falls
Hot air can hold more moisture than cool air
Air flows from high pressure to low pressure
A little around the equator
Heavy rain around equator, and deserts around 30 degrees N and S
Ferrel cell
Atmospheric circulation in the temperate regions
Cool dry air falling at 30 degrees creates high pressure zone
Polar cell
Spreading toward pole, cools and falls to spread back toward equator
Coriolis Effect
North South circulation caused by convection cells
East west circulation caused by Coriolis effect
Causes apparent deflection of winds clockwise in northern hemisphere and
counterclockwise in southern hemisphere
Hadley cells: Tradewinds
Consistent wind from the East
Ferrel Cells: westerlies
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Consistent wind from the west
Polar cells: Polar Easterlies
Consistent wind from the east
Water has a high specific heat
Specific heat: Amount of heat (energy) per unit mass required to raise the
temperature by one degree celsius
Land heats and cools much faster than water
Large bodies of water moderate climate
Continental climate is more extreme
No moderating effect of water
Montane Effect
Adiabatic cooling: as air rises, pressure is reduced, air expands and cools
Rain Shadow: air arriving on opposite side of mountain is dry
BIOMES
Climate diagrams show:
Locality
Elevation
Mean monthly temperature
Mean monthly precipitation
Mean annual temperature
Total annual precipitation
Frost period (based on mean daily minimum
temperature)
Desert biomes don’t get a lot of rain, but there is still growing seasons year round
Tropical dry forests Summer rainy season. One Big hump of rain
Mediterranean: Summer drought
Tropical rainforest: Rain year round
Soil:
Soil Horizons:
O: Organic Layer
A: Mineral Soil layer
B: Depositional layer
C: Weathered parent material
Weathering: breakdown of parent material, mechanical or chemical
Leaching: loss of soluble organic material, minerals to groundwater
Erosion: Loss of soils through action of wind or water
Decomposition: breakdown of organic material
Mixing: action of plants and animals
Tropical rainforests: Abundant rainfall, consistently warm temps, high rates of
photosynthesis
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