BIOL 3309 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Snowshoe Hare, Predation, Predator Satiation

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Chapter 14 Exploitative Interactions
Exploitative Interactions
o Interactions between species that enhance the fitness of one individual while
reducing the fitness of the exploited individual
One organism makes its living at the expense of another
14.1 Exploitative interactions weave populations into a web of relationships that defy easy
generalization
Food webs: Predator Prey interactions
Parasites that alter the behavior of their host
o Cordyceps sp.
o Parasitic fungus
o Example. Last of us 2 (Video game)
Complex exploitative interactions can alter relationships among organisms and their
environment
Parasite mediated complex exploitative interactions can affect:
o Fecundity
o Mortality
o Demography
o Population abundance
o Population Dynamics
Effect of parasitism may be density dependent
14.2 Predators, parasites, and pathogens influence the distribution, abundance, and structure
of prey and host populations
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The picture above depicts some exploitative interactions between algae and H. borealis.
Exploitative interactions can have cascading effects throughout an ecosystem
- The network of relationships among organisms is extensive and complex
- Exploitative interactions between two organisms can lead to cascading effects on other
organisms throughout the ecosystem
Picture below shows the effect of an outbreak that affected foxes. Causes the hare
population to increase. Etc.
14.3 Predator-prey, host-parasite, and host-pathogen relationships are dynamic
Temporal dynamics
o Predator- prey populations go through cycles over periods of days- decades,
depending on the species
Fox and hare populations constantly changing even when approximately
stable over longer time intervals
Fox and hares cycle in abundance
Lynx and snowshoe hare
o These animals also have cycles
Snowshoe hare browsing
o Browsing on shrubs induces chemical defenses
o Elevated chemical defenses can persist for up to 2 years
Reduces food availability
o Cyclical changes
Snowshoe hare predators
o They have a lot
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o Coyotes and lynx both demonstrate functional response and numerical
response (mentioned in another review)
BOTH
Exclusion/ supplementation experiments
o Excluding predators doubled hare population density
o Adding food tripled hare population density
o Combined: 11 times increase in pop dens.
FORMULA: Lotka Volterra predator- prey models*
o Represent relationships between predator and prey populations
o 1st one below
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