[BIOL 3309] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (95 pages long)

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BIOL 3309
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 19
Ecosystem Ecology
Ecosystem: a biological community plus all the abiotic factors affecting that community
Term ecosystem proposed by Arthur Tansley
Ecosystem ecologists include the physical and chemical factors influencing the c
ommunity and focus on processes such as energy flow and decomposition
Photosynthesis converts sunlight into biomass
Convert solar energy into stored energy
Photosynthesis- ecosystem scale
- Ecosystem works to absorb transform, and store energy
o Physical, chemical, and biological processes
Primary production
o Primary Production: the production of organic matter, or biomass, by
autotrophs in an ecosystem; in most ecosystems, the most significant
autotrophs are photosynthetic
o Rate of primary Production: the amount of energy fixed by the autotrophs in
an ecosystem over some interval of time
GPP and NPP
o Gross Primary Production (GPP): the total biomass produced by the
primary producers in an ecosystem over some interval of time
o Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of biomass left over after
autotrophs have met their own energetic needs. NPP is GPP minus respiration
by primary producers; it is the amount of energy in the form of biomass
available to the consumers in an ecosystem.
Temporal and spatial variations in NPP
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o Starts with NPP
o Trophic levels:
Photosynthetic autotrophs are primary producers
Herbivores are primary consumers
Carnivores that eat herbivores are secondary consumers
o What causes variation in NPP?
18.1 Terrestrial primary production is generally limited by temperature and moisture
Actual evapotranspiration and terrestrial primary production
o Evaporation is influenced by both temperature and precipitation
Warmer, wetter= more evaporation
Colder, drier= less evaporation
o Evapotranspiration may be a good indicator of NPP
What does evapotranspiration have to do with NPP? Why might it be
good indicator?
Actual Evapotranspiration and Terrestrial Primary Production
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