CHEM 3310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Membrane Fluidity, Atp-Binding Cassette Transporter, Lipid Bilayer

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6 Feb 2017
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Exam 3
Chapter 10 (just the end)
A. Blood types
a. based on N-linked oligosaccharides
b. Type O is universal donor because it has one less functional group than A
or B (no galactose)
B. Red blood cell stimulatory hormone: erythropoietin (EPO)
a. Increases oxygen-carrying capacity
i. Abused by many endurance athletes
C. Lectins: carb-binding proteins
a. Mediate cell-cell contact via carbohydrate specific surface binding sites
b. Viruses take advantage of it
i. tamiflu - inhibitor that helps fight virus
Chapter 11: Lipids
A. Lipid basics
a. Water insoluble (hydrophobic)
b. Non-polymeric structure
c. Energy storage, membrane constituent, hormone signaling
B. Fatty acids
a. Structure
i. Hydrocarbon with carboxylic acid head
ii. Highly reduced carbon source
iii. Ionized at neutral pH
iv. More double bonds= more unsaturated
v. No double bonds= saturated
b. Source of fuel
i. Usually numbered beginning with C-terminal carbon (blue #)
ii. C1 is alpha and C2 is beta
iii. Methyl carbon called omega carbon and can be C1 in diff
numbering system (red ink)
iv.
c. MP and Fluidity
i. Shorter chain length lowers melting point
ii. Lower MP, more fluidity
1. Olive oil liquid at room temp (14- 16 chain length)
2. Bacon grease (20-22 chain length)
iii. More saturated, higher MP
iv. cis double bond lowers MP
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v. Unsaturated fatty acids (oils) vs saturated fatty acids (solid)
d. Health
i. Trans fat correlated with high blood cholesterol and cardiovascular
disease
ii. Cis polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for the diet
1. inhibit blood clotting, reduce heart attack risk
2. Animals can’t make polyunsaturated fats, must be ingested
a. Essential fats
iii. Vegetable oil (linolenate)
iv. Shell fish/cold water fish (EPA/DHA)
e. Storage for energy
i. Anhydrous fat /gram stores 6x energy of hydrated glycogen
ii. Triacylglycerols stored in adipose tissue
iii. Sugar storage gives energy for 18 hrs; triacylglycerol storage gives
energy for several weeks
f. Phospholipids
i. Major class of membrane lipids
ii. Have 2+ fatty acids, a platform, a phosphate and an alcohol
iii.
g. Extremophiles
i. Different fatty acid tails
1. Don’t have carbonyls
2. Methyl groups on tails
a. These bonds increase MP
ii. Difference in linkages
1. Bound to glycerol by ether bonds
2. Ether bonds harder to hydrolyze and/or oxidize
h. Sphingolipids
i. backbone- sphingosine
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ii. Sphingomyelin
1. sphingosine with a fatty acid amide linkage and choline;
abundant in nerve cell membranes (myelin sheath)
iii. Cerebroside sphingosine with one sugar residue
1. Simplest glycolipid
i. Membrane lipid structure is conserved
j. Glycolipids
i. Gangliosides sphingosine with multiple sugar residues
ii.
iii. Sugars are extracellular
iv. A, B and O blood typing
k. Steroids
i. Tetracyclic ring structure -3 cyclohexanes fused with a
cyclopentane
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