[HIST 2300] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (11 pages long)

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HIST 2300
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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The First Americas: The New World Before Columbus
Ancient Americas (The Paleoindians)
Beringia Land Bridge
o How they came to Alaska from Russia
Clovis Points
o Found in glacier wall crevice
Spirit Cave Mummy and Kennewick Man
o Related to Japanese
Foraging (Hunter-Gatherer Cultures)
o Killed off large game
Shamanism
Neolithic Revolution
o c. 4000-3000 BC
o Based around a crop (beans and corn)
The Archaic Period
Caral-Supe
o Peru c. 2600 BC
o First civilization
Olmec Civilization
o First large civilization
San Lorenzo
o Modern day Gulf of Mexico c. 1200-600 BC
o Centralized
Early Mesoamerica
Mayan Civilization
o Yucatan Peninsula c. 600 BC-600 AD
o Centralized
o Small, frequently fighting
o Complicated calendar system
o Math focused on number 20
o Cuneiform writing
Palenque Site
o Cracked code to Mayan writing in 1973
Early North America
Cahokia
Anasazi Civilization
o Chaco Canyon, NM c. 900-1150
o Cliff dwellers, 1,100 people
o Large irrigation system
Mound Builder Culture
o Mississippi River Valley c. 1100-1300
o Burial mounds used as platforms for religious and communal functions
o Modern day St. Louis, 30,000 people
o Huge commercial hub
Aztec Empire
Itzcoatl
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o Ruler of Tenochtitlan, first builder of Aztec Empire
o Aggressive, Tlaxcala primary enemy
1427-1520, all of Central America, originated in Northern Mexico
100,000-200,000 people
o 10 largest cities in the world
Tenochtitlan
o Island in Central Mexico
o Irrigation
o Water and waste carriers
o Chinapas: outskirts in canals for farming
Human sacrifice
o Gods required human blood for earth
o Psychological terror
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