ARTH 222 Study Guide - Summer 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Italy, Jesus, Renaissance

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30 Nov 2019
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ARTH 222
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Precursors of the Renaissance
13th and 14th century italian art was diverse
Bzyantine art
French Gothic
Early Christian arts
Classical Traditions
“Classical” “Classic” “Antiquity”
All refers to Greek art
Contrapposto- means weight shifting
Posture of two legs of statue (more leg is on one side then the
other)
Shows relaxed and graceful posture
Nudity
Celebrated the beauty of nudity
Ideal Proportions
Muscular, attractive, perfect bodies
Graceful posture
Flowing Drapery
Drapery represent flowing and light movement
Greek Mythological
Represents gods and goddesses
During the roman empire the Classical tradition went downhill. During the bzyantine
empire Classical tradition completely was overshadowed, there was a strong change in
state religion. The arts changed.
Bzyantine empire
Church and religious structures and paintings overtook the time period
Great use of gold on mosaic paintings on wall in churches
After the fall of the Bzyantine Empire
Turkey was conquered by the Ottoman empire, after that more Arabic styles
came into play with architecture
“Christ on earth”
Mosaic painting
Jesus is in the center on the earth
Flat, not a lot of emotion
Stiffness of figures
Bzyantine work
Flat figures, no emotion
Distraught emphasize on state and religion
Strong use of gold
1140s Paris
Gothic Styles
England and France adopted it
Spikey towers are very common
Emphasizing height of the church
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Three doorways
Long windows
Rose/Stained glass windows
Emphasize on verticality
Facade divided into 3 bays
Usually 3 doorways
Tall lancet windows
Flying buttresses (supporting walls of church and decorative)
Gothic Statues
Elongated and stiff statues
Similar to Bzyantine style
Key Issues
1. What earlier styles influenced Italian art in the 13th and 14th centuries?
2. What was the Renaissance and how did artists break new grounds?
13th century Italy
Most works were religious
The church, popes, wealthy; were the major patrons of the time
Artists had to follow closely with the instructions of the patrons
Color of paintings, quality
All details were stated in contract from patrons
Paintings were not for self expression
Italo- Byzantine Style
Cimabue (artist)
Apprentice to a greek painter
Madonna enthroned with patrons and artists
Gold- bzyantine features, stiff figures
14th Century Italy
Renaissance - means rebirth
Revive ancient greek art and ideas
Black Death
½ of Europe’s population died
Death lead to the rise of humanism
Humanism
Valued human capacity
Valued reasoning
Humanism lead to Naturalism
Florence
Giotto Di Bondone
Student of Cimabue
First master to reject Italo Bzyantine style to start the naturalism
movement
Arena Chapel
(paintings on the wall) Fresco
Watercolor on wet plaster
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