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BIOL 120 Ecology Exam Review.doc

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BIOL 120
Christa R.Partain

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BIOL 120 EcologyReview Climate How does the earth’s curvature and tilt produce seasons and climate Above and below the equator the suns rays are less intense, oblique. Season in higher and lower latitudes occur due to tilt of Earths on its axis and the orbit of the earth around the sun. Solar irradiance: the amount of light energy per unit area Thermal momentum Biomes Aquatic: 1. Freshwater (lakes, rivers, streams): Low salt, few plants 2. Wetlands: High nutrient level, slows water, reduces floods, helps absorb pollution, plants are submerged and emerged 3. Estuary: Where salt water meets fresh water, prevents erosion, salt marsh, a lot of fish 4. Marine (open ocean): high salt, 50% of oxygen is made by phytoplankton, 2/3 of earths surface , phytoplankton are basis of food chain, coral reefs -Intertidal: under during high tide, above during low tide, harsh environment plants and animals must be able to anchor -Open ocean: heavily exploited, species diversity declined 50% in past 50yrs Abyssal plain: deep dark ocean, cold, rich in life, energy from hydrogen sulfide from volcanic vents Terrestrial: 1. Tundra: permaforst, cold and dry, plants grow in cushions, animals store fat, hibernate, migrate, have extra fur 2. Desert: hot sometimes cold, dry, cactus and snakes. plants and animals adapt to retain water 3. Grassland: dry, grass, tall grass prairies and short grass stepes, animals eat top grass, height of grass depends on precipitation, maintained by fires, special chamber, fiber digesting bacteria 4. Savannah: dry, grass, wet season is summer, dry season is winter, scattered trees, huge herds of mammals and predators 5. Taiga: Largest biome, very cold, long and often snowy winters and short moist summers, plants evergreen conifers, moose, photosynthesis right after thawing, large mammals and summer resident birds 6. Temperate deciduous forest:Alot of water during growing season, cold winter temps. limit photosynthesis, moderate temps, oak trees and deer 7. Tropical forest: Hot, moist, biomass in tree canopy, plants and animals live in canopy, decompose quickly, poor soil, deforestation due to slash/burn and cattle grazing. Eutrophication: high nutrient levels from fertilizer runoff lead to blooms of algae grow which depletes oxygen and causes fish kills Population What is the major differences between K-selected and r-selected species? They are complete opposites K: pop. size limited by carrying capacity, stable, organisms are larger, long living r: pop. size limited by reproductive rate, unstable, organisms are smaller, short living Population- all the individuals of a species in an area C
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