BIOL 120 Genetics Review
What is the structure & function of DNA- Double Helix. DNAstores genetic information,
duplicates info, transfers and decodes info
What is the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, genes, genome, and protein?
DNAwraps around protein to make chromatid and that makes chromosomes. Genes are
located on the chromosones
Where is a genome located? Nucleus
What are the similarities and differences between DNAreplication & protein synthesis?
Difference- DNAreplication makes more DNAand Protein synthesis makes more
Similarity- DNAgets separated and happens during interphase
How are RNAand DNAdifferent and similar?
Different because DNAhas 2 strands RNAhas 1, Different sugars, Different Bases
Similar- Both carry info, made of nucleotides, have phosphate backbone
Why are proteins important? Protein Synthesis
Know the following terms:
DNA- Molecule of heredity that stores info required for making proteins required in a
Chromosomes- long single molecule of DNAand associated proteins
Genes- Segment of a chromosome that carries specific info about a trait.ASeries of base
pairs of DNA. Instructions carried by DNA
Genome- An organisms complete set of DNA, including all genes
RNA- Information carrying molecule composed of nucleotides
When does DNAreplication occur? Interphase
Are the chromosomes condensed during interphase?Uncondensed
What happens during interphase? DNAis copied
What happens during mitosis? DNAis split into two identical daughter cells
What happens during cytokenesis? Parent cell is cleaved in half
Are the chromosomes condensed or not during mitosis? Condensed
What’s the difference between benign tumors and malignant tumors?
Benign Tumors have no effect on surrounding tissue (noncancerous), Malignant tumors
invade surrounding tumors (cancerous)
Know the following terms:
Somatic cells- Body cells
Germ cells- Gonads, sex cells
Cancer- uncontrolled cell growth
What is the relationship between chromosome, locus, allele, and gene?
Genes are on chromosomes, the allele is on the gene, the place where the gene is located
is called the locus
What are the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis? Differences: Mitosis occurs in somatic cells, 2 identical Daughter cells, for growth/repair
& Meiosis occurs in germ cells, 4 unidentical daughter cells, for reproduction
Similarities: Types of cell division & separates chromosomes
What happens in meiosis I & meiosis II?
In Meiosis I Homologous pairs separate.
In Meiosis II Sister chromatids of the replicated chromosomes are separated
What creates diversity? Sexual Reproduction & IndependentAssortment
What is the difference, via meiosis, between identical twins and fraternal twins?
Identical twins 1 egg & 2 sp