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BIOL 120 Genetics Exam Review.doc

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BIOL 120
Christa R.Partain

BIOL 120 Genetics Review What is the structure & function of DNA- Double Helix. DNAstores genetic information, duplicates info, transfers and decodes info What is the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, genes, genome, and protein? DNAwraps around protein to make chromatid and that makes chromosomes. Genes are located on the chromosones Where is a genome located? Nucleus What are the similarities and differences between DNAreplication & protein synthesis? Difference- DNAreplication makes more DNAand Protein synthesis makes more proteins. Similarity- DNAgets separated and happens during interphase How are RNAand DNAdifferent and similar? Different because DNAhas 2 strands RNAhas 1, Different sugars, Different Bases Similar- Both carry info, made of nucleotides, have phosphate backbone Why are proteins important? Protein Synthesis Know the following terms: DNA- Molecule of heredity that stores info required for making proteins required in a cell Chromosomes- long single molecule of DNAand associated proteins Genes- Segment of a chromosome that carries specific info about a trait.ASeries of base pairs of DNA. Instructions carried by DNA Genome- An organisms complete set of DNA, including all genes RNA- Information carrying molecule composed of nucleotides When does DNAreplication occur? Interphase Are the chromosomes condensed during interphase?Uncondensed What happens during interphase? DNAis copied What happens during mitosis? DNAis split into two identical daughter cells What happens during cytokenesis? Parent cell is cleaved in half Are the chromosomes condensed or not during mitosis? Condensed What’s the difference between benign tumors and malignant tumors? Benign Tumors have no effect on surrounding tissue (noncancerous), Malignant tumors invade surrounding tumors (cancerous) Know the following terms: Somatic cells- Body cells Germ cells- Gonads, sex cells Cancer- uncontrolled cell growth Inheritance, Meiosis What is the relationship between chromosome, locus, allele, and gene? Genes are on chromosomes, the allele is on the gene, the place where the gene is located is called the locus What are the similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis? Differences: Mitosis occurs in somatic cells, 2 identical Daughter cells, for growth/repair & Meiosis occurs in germ cells, 4 unidentical daughter cells, for reproduction Similarities: Types of cell division & separates chromosomes What happens in meiosis I & meiosis II? In Meiosis I Homologous pairs separate. In Meiosis II Sister chromatids of the replicated chromosomes are separated What creates diversity? Sexual Reproduction & IndependentAssortment What is the difference, via meiosis, between identical twins and fraternal twins? Identical twins 1 egg & 2 sp
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