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Criminal Justice
CRMJ 201

STUDY OUTLINE / EXAM ONE / INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINOLOGY / Megan Kanka—megan laws FALL 2013 What Criminologists Do (Reading--Chapter 1 Name Concept Walsh) Date when term “criminology” was coined-- Garrofalo-- often regarded as the father Measurement and Counting of Crime-- of criminology • Independent Variable-- Joel Best—wrote piece about data • Dependent Variable-- • Sampling-- Relationship Between Law and Society-- James Q. Wilson-- broken windows theory • Megan’s Laws-- Norman K. Denzin-- • Obscenity Laws-- • Brady Bill-- William Graham Sumner-- held the first • Changes in Alcohol Laws-- professorship in sociology • Legal Policy and Crime Rates-- Patricia Adler—field researcher Theory Development and Crime Causation-- • Level of Analysis-- • Individual Level Theories-- Emile Durkheim-- principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology • Social Level Theories-- Identification of Criminal Behavior Patterns-- Jeffrey Reiman—the stereotype of a • Exs. of traditional crime areas-- criminal • Exs. of contemporary crime areas-- Victimology and Consequences of Crime-- The Schwindingers—crime is a violation of any • Crime offenders more likelyto be universal human right particular the rights of life, victims-- liberty, health. • Prior victims of some crimes more at risk-- Gottfredson & Hirschi-- act of • General rule of crime victimization-- individual self-control as the main factor behind criminal behavior. Theory “criminologists” indicated best explains criminal behavior-- Bonnie Fisher, et al.-- Criminology vs. Other Fields Criminal Justice-- Cesare Lombroso-- • Period of main growth in academia-- Police Administration/Science-- Levitt and Dubner-- • Three main policing styles: legalistic, Mark Warr—fear of crime/peer influence watchman, service-- Criminalistics/Forensics-- Jeremy Strohmeyer— • Range of Forensic Sciences-- Corrections/Penology-- Tonya Harding-- • Historical emphasis on changing the criminal-- John Hinckley-- Sociology of Deviance-- James J. Bulger-- • Big 4 areas of study-- Michael Fay—captial punishment victim of canning Selected Professional Associations (Internet 1 Address / Journal Handout) Justice Sciences (ACJS) • Criminology--American Society of • Sociology of Deviance--Society for the Criminology (ASC) Study of Social Problems (SSSP) • Criminal Justice--Academy of Criminal Legalistic Definition of Crime (Reading--Chapter 1 Walsh) Three Core Legal Elements-- • Actus Rea (Guilty Act)-- • Crime of Commission-- • Crime of Ommission-- • Violation of Written Law-- • Prohibitory Laws-- • Obligatory Laws-- • Mens Rea (Intent)-- • Specific Intent-- • General Intent-- • Transfer of Intent-- • Strict Liability-- Concurrence of Elements-- Difference BetweenMotive vs. Intent-- • Expressive Motives-- • Instrumental Motives-- Personal Defenses-- • Insanity-- • Age (minimum age for any and for full legal responsibility)-- • Involuntary Intoxication-- Situational Defenses-- • Necessity-- • Self-Defense-- • Entrapment-- • Accident-- • Mistake-- • Duress-- • Provocation-- (see Reading--Chapter 15 Walsh) • Consent-- Penalties by the State-- • Spotlight on Victim’s Rights (Reading--Chapter 15 Walsh) • Origin of the Victim’s Rights Movement-- • When movement began-- • Basic Rights of Victim’s Today-- • Attend Criminal Proceedings-- • Financial Compensation or Restitution-- • Speak and Provide Input at Sentencing-- • Protection from Intimidation-- • Types of Punishments Administered-- • From Fines to Execution-- 2 • Punishments in other societies-- Legal Classification of Offenses • Capital Offense-- • Felony (mala in se)-- • Misdemeanor (mala prohibita)-- • Infraction-- Criminal Law vs. Other Types of Norms • Folkways-- • Mores-- Nature of the Criminal Law • Consensus Model-- • Conflict Model-- • Moral Enterprise Model-- Sociological Definitions of Crime • Group Reaction Definition-- • Exploitive Behavior Definition-- • Social Harm Definition-- Ideology of Crime (Reading--BB Jeffrey Reiman, Rich Get Richer…) • Carnival Mirror-- • Direct Harm-- • Indirect Harm-- • False Image of the Typical Criminal-- • Crimes by Other Names-- Four Types of Quantitative Data (Reading--Chapter 2 Walsh) UCR Data-- • Eight Index Crimes-- • Part II Crimes-- • Founded Crimes vs. Arrests-- • Hierarchy Rule-- • FBI Crime Clock most frequent crime-- • Clearance Rate (for Violent Crime, Property Crime, Murder)-- • NIBRS-- Victimization Data-- • NCVS (what is measured compared to UCR)-- • Bounding Interview-- • Unsafe in the Ivory Tower study-- • Estimated risk of rape for college women-- • Dark Figure of Crime-- Self-Report Data-- • Anonymous vs. Confidential participation-- • Response or Completion Rate-- • Monitoring the Future-- • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS)-- • National Survey on Drug Use and Health-- 3 Public Opinion Poll Data-- • Range of issues polled-- • Representative Sample & Sample Size-- • Attitude towards legalization or medical use of marijuana-- • Attitudes about gun laws in American society-- • Would you complete a Poll if called-- Shortcomings of Each Type of Quantitative Data-- Types of Qualitative Data-- • Field Observation—enter world of people they want to research • In-Depth Interviewing
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