CRMJ 254 Final Exam Review.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Criminal Justice
CRMJ 254
Laura Hahn

CRMJ 254 Final Exam Review CJ Components and what they do • The police- Maintain order,Arrest Perps, Provide Emergency Service. Enforce Criminal Law • The courts- Convict guilty, Seek truth, Obtain Justice, Provide fair trial, Sentence • Corrections- Responsible for the punishment and Rehab of the offender, now an inmate Goals of Criminal Justice • Retribution: deserved punishment.payment of debt to society • Deterrence: punishment inflicted to discourage • Incapacitation: removal of freedom • Rehabilitation: to correct them to law abiding citizens • Restoration: repairs damage to victim and community. plans for future change Due Process Model Crime Control Model Arrest and Booking (ASUSPECT)- Seizing and detaining a person and administrative recording of an arrest Elements state has to prove for conviction 1. Actus Reus- The guilty act. act happened 2. Mens Rea- State of mind that accompanies criminal act... Criminal mind Ex post facto law-Cant be punished for actions committed before law made it illegal Mala in se- Crimes that are wrong in themselves, wrong everywhere Mala Prohibita-Offense that are illegal because law define them as such (Trespassing) Dark figure of Crime-Number of crimes officially not counted by police Crime Index-Estimate of crimes committed Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Part 1 and Part 2 Legal Defenses for Criminal Responsibility • Duress-Force or Coercion as an excuse for committing a crime • Underage or Juvenile Delinquency-Category of defense for the young b/w 7-18 • Insanity-Mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against criminal charge • Entrapment-Induced by law enforcement to commit a crime • Self Defense- Amount of force reasonable to defend themselves against apparent threat Classical School Principles – Have free will & some choose to commit crime. Focus on crime & punishment. Embraces deterrence.Advocates prison Cesare Beccaria-Classical View, wrote on crime and punishment Positivist World View-You are a product of your environment Cesare Lombroso- father of the positive school of criminology, atavism Strain Theory (Sometimes called Anomie)- crimes are committed because of strong pressure and weak restraints Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Food,water, Sex • Safety, Securtiy, freedom from fear • Belongingness • Esteem • Being True to ones nature RoutineActivities Theory: Convergence of oppurtunity, target person or object, potential of reward or gain Issues in policing: Discretion- exercise of individual judgement instead of rules Full Enforcement: arrest for every violation that comes to their attention Selective Enforcement: relying on judgement leadership and rank to decide which laws to enforce, pepper pelet gun Use of Force: brutality, excessive force, deadly force Less Lethal Weapons- minimize the risk of death or injury Police Corruption: some are profit motivated, pre-employment history and education and training matter. Grass eaters: occasionally and Meat eaters: actively August Vollmer- training, education, professional police main function should be fighting crime First Unpaid and Paid American Police Force Police in the 60’s Police in the 70’s Community Policing Robert Peele-MPA(metropolitan police act) is passed while he is home secretary. creates first organized police force th Frankpledge/Tithing System (12 century policing)-10 families banded together (tithing) and was supervised by 1 constable. 100s banded together to form shires supervised by shire reeves. Constable Watch (13 century policing)- Watchmen were employed to protect property against fire & robbery. Justice of the peace established and were given judicial duties, constable where their assistants th 18 Century Policing- Henry Fielding created bow street runners who apprehended criminal and recovered stolen property. (1st british detectives) English experience with policing Early Police Experience in America Broken Windows- if the signs of crime aren’t taken care of more serious crimes will occur Social Disorganization Functions of Police: • Patrol- “Backbone of the department” most time consuming • Drugs- Surveillance, interruption of suspected transactions, raids of “shooting galleries” • Traffic- regulate and control of vehicle and pedestrian traffic • Investigation-Locate witnesses, arrest criminals, write reports, interrogation Rights of the accused Bail and other methods of release Dual Court System: Federal system and State system. Federal= supreme. circut and district State courts: 4 levels 1. Limited jurisdiction: only hear certain types of cases. “lower courts”. ordinance or traffic violation 2. General jurisdiction: hear any type of case. civil and criminal cases & appeal lower courts. courts of record 3. IntermediateAppeals: not in all states. only hear appeals. cant refuse appealed cases 4. State Sup. Court: Hear for error of laws. hears from every court beneath it Jury trials- Guilt or Innocence determined by Jury recommendation Bench trials-Guilt or Innocence determined by judge alone Court Process (Defendant)- InitialAppearance, Preliminary Hearing,Arraignment Initial appearance- charges read Preliminary Hearing- Bail, indictment if Grand Jury determines probable cause Arraignment- Plea Bargain or No contest. Bench/Jury trial NO PLEABARGAIN =Trial Substantive law-body of law that defines criminal offenses and their penalties. (what people legally may or may not do) Procedu
More Less

Related notes for CRMJ 254

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.