CRMJ 254 Final Exam Review.doc
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Department
Criminal Justice
Course
CRMJ 254
Professor
Laura Hahn
Semester
Spring

Description
CRMJ 254 Final Exam Review CJ Components and what they do • The police- Maintain order,Arrest Perps, Provide Emergency Service. Enforce Criminal Law • The courts- Convict guilty, Seek truth, Obtain Justice, Provide fair trial, Sentence • Corrections- Responsible for the punishment and Rehab of the offender, now an inmate Goals of Criminal Justice • Retribution: deserved punishment.payment of debt to society • Deterrence: punishment inflicted to discourage • Incapacitation: removal of freedom • Rehabilitation: to correct them to law abiding citizens • Restoration: repairs damage to victim and community. plans for future change Due Process Model Crime Control Model Arrest and Booking (ASUSPECT)- Seizing and detaining a person and administrative recording of an arrest Elements state has to prove for conviction 1. Actus Reus- The guilty act. act happened 2. Mens Rea- State of mind that accompanies criminal act... Criminal mind Ex post facto law-Cant be punished for actions committed before law made it illegal Mala in se- Crimes that are wrong in themselves, wrong everywhere Mala Prohibita-Offense that are illegal because law define them as such (Trespassing) Dark figure of Crime-Number of crimes officially not counted by police Crime Index-Estimate of crimes committed Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Part 1 and Part 2 Legal Defenses for Criminal Responsibility • Duress-Force or Coercion as an excuse for committing a crime • Underage or Juvenile Delinquency-Category of defense for the young b/w 7-18 • Insanity-Mental or psychological impairment or retardation as a defense against criminal charge • Entrapment-Induced by law enforcement to commit a crime • Self Defense- Amount of force reasonable to defend themselves against apparent threat Classical School Principles – Have free will & some choose to commit crime. Focus on crime & punishment. Embraces deterrence.Advocates prison Cesare Beccaria-Classical View, wrote on crime and punishment Positivist World View-You are a product of your environment Cesare Lombroso- father of the positive school of criminology, atavism Strain Theory (Sometimes called Anomie)- crimes are committed because of strong pressure and weak restraints Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Food,water, Sex • Safety, Securtiy, freedom from fear • Belongingness • Esteem • Being True to ones nature RoutineActivities Theory: Convergence of oppurtunity, target person or object, potential of reward or gain Issues in policing: Discretion- exercise of individual judgement instead of rules Full Enforcement: arrest for every violation that comes to their attention Selective Enforcement: relying on judgement leadership and rank to decide which laws to enforce, pepper pelet gun Use of Force: brutality, excessive force, deadly force Less Lethal Weapons- minimize the risk of death or injury Police Corruption: some are profit motivated, pre-employment history and education and training matter. Grass eaters: occasionally and Meat eaters: actively August Vollmer- training, education, professional police main function should be fighting crime First Unpaid and Paid American Police Force Police in the 60’s Police in the 70’s Community Policing Robert Peele-MPA(metropolitan police act) is passed while he is home secretary. creates first organized police force th Frankpledge/Tithing System (12 century policing)-10 families banded together (tithing) and was supervised by 1 constable. 100s banded together to form shires supervised by shire reeves. Constable Watch (13 century policing)- Watchmen were employed to protect property against fire & robbery. Justice of the peace established and were given judicial duties, constable where their assistants th 18 Century Policing- Henry Fielding created bow street runners who apprehended criminal and recovered stolen property. (1st british detectives) English experience with policing Early Police Experience in America Broken Windows- if the signs of crime aren’t taken care of more serious crimes will occur Social Disorganization Functions of Police: • Patrol- “Backbone of the department” most time consuming • Drugs- Surveillance, interruption of suspected transactions, raids of “shooting galleries” • Traffic- regulate and control of vehicle and pedestrian traffic • Investigation-Locate witnesses, arrest criminals, write reports, interrogation Rights of the accused Bail and other methods of release Dual Court System: Federal system and State system. Federal= supreme. circut and district State courts: 4 levels 1. Limited jurisdiction: only hear certain types of cases. “lower courts”. ordinance or traffic violation 2. General jurisdiction: hear any type of case. civil and criminal cases & appeal lower courts. courts of record 3. IntermediateAppeals: not in all states. only hear appeals. cant refuse appealed cases 4. State Sup. Court: Hear for error of laws. hears from every court beneath it Jury trials- Guilt or Innocence determined by Jury recommendation Bench trials-Guilt or Innocence determined by judge alone Court Process (Defendant)- InitialAppearance, Preliminary Hearing,Arraignment Initial appearance- charges read Preliminary Hearing- Bail, indictment if Grand Jury determines probable cause Arraignment- Plea Bargain or No contest. Bench/Jury trial NO PLEABARGAIN =Trial Substantive law-body of law that defines criminal offenses and their penalties. (what people legally may or may not do) Procedu
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