[GEOG 102] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 17 pages long Study Guide!

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GEOG 102
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MONDAY, AUG. 31st (from video, 'How Beneficial is World Trade?')***
1. Why have we seen an explosion of trade since the mid-1970s?
Two main reasons: (1) Multinational trade agreements have lowered barriers to trade in many
countries; (2) Transportation times and costs have decreased drastically (its cheaper and faster to
transport goods)
2. According to the film, how much of the world’s trade flows between wealthy, developed countries?
between poorer, developing countries?
Most of the world’s trade flows between already wealthy places in the world. This is even more true
when we think about the value of trade almost all valuable goods move between wealthy places.
3. What is import substituting industrialization and where was it practiced?
ISI was common in Latin America and South Asia after WWII. ISI means that a country places heavy
restrictions on manufacturing imports in order to protect domestic industry.
4. What is export-oriented industrialization and where was it practiced?
EOI was common in East Asia after WWII. EOI involves liberalizing trade in order to promote the export
of domestic industrial goods.
5. What does the concept of “economies of scale” argue?
The concept of economies of scale holds that a greater scale of production (making lots more of the
same thing) lowers the cost per unit of a manufactured good.
6. What is a comparative advantage?
A comparative advantage occurs when someone/somewhere is able to produce goods at a lower
opportunity costs that someone/somewhere else.
7. What is protectionism?
A policy of protecting domestic industries from foreign competition, usually by prohibiting or taxing
8. What was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
GATT preceded the World Trade Organization (WTO). Importantly it laid down the rules by which
countries would negotiate lower tariffs on each others’ goods.
9. What are the main arguments for Free Trade? and against Free Trade?
PRO: Production is most efficient (we only make the stuff for which we have a comparative advantage,
and then import good stuff made by others who have a comparative advantage producing those things),
so we all make and compete and consume more. CONS: Competitive advantages are not even (some
with less get screwed) there are no perfectly competitive markets; countries are more dependent and
therefore potentially less sovereign.
***These are the same questions from the ICA #1 handout. The handout will be returned to you once
all grades are input.
1. What is geography?
Geography is the study of process and events over spae
2. Why is geography, arguably, becoming more relevant/more important in today's world?
Because people and places are becoming more interdependent, international relationships are rapidly
changing, unexpected local changes, and growing global environmental degradation.
1. What is globalization? What is so new about globalization?
Globalization is the increasing interconnectedness/integration. Globalization isn’t new but geographers
argue that globalization represents a greater degree and rate of interconnectedness.
2. Be able to identify examples of economic, political, cultural and
environmental globalization (that are different from those mentioned in the lecture).
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3. What is imperialism? What is the difference between historical imperialism and European
Imperialism is extending a country’s power through force; directly (invasion and settlement) and
indirectly (taxes). The difference is in terms of movement, people, and resources. Overseas there is
restricted movement. With imperialism the movement is easier because it just has expanded
4. What were the motivations for European exploration? How did these differ from the motivations for
European Colonization?
European exploration: ecological degradation, military and economic spoils, debt, need to establish
controlled trade routes, “vacuum” left by collapse of Islamic empire
European colonization: economic profit/trade control, natural resource control, overpopulation/lack of
land for populous, cultural motivators
5. During the colonial period, how did resources and people move between colonizing countries and their
colonies? People moved in one direction
(colonizer colony) while resources moved in another direction (colony colonizer).
1. How was European colonialism different than "traditional" Imperialism?
European colonization often involved extension of political control to people and places overseas.
2. What was the difference between "early" and "late" European colonialism?
Early period- European countries started by exploring territory and then claiming it. Late period-
colonizers claim control of a territory first and then explore it and assess its resoures.
2. What was the Berlin Conference?
13 European countries got together in Berlin and laid out a map of Africa and draw lines and
borders, sections of territories. (1884)
3. What are unnatural borders? Why do they matter?
Unnatural borders are something deterred by some outside inputs. They matter because Africa
didn’t have a say in anything about the borders and who controlled what country. It looks like
someone took a ruler and drew lines to make borders. It was just a straight line and if it went
through a town or body of water they had to find a way to just split it
4. What were some of the lasting impacts of the colonial period?
Unequal social relationships, introduction of disease, environmental exploitation, infrastructure
building, standardization, and introduction of medical advances.
5. What is neo-colonialism?
Post-colonial relationship wherein former colonial power exerts influence over former colonies by
controlling international trade relationships and opportunities
From ICA #3 and the discussion that followed...
6. What characterized the world "core"? and the periphery? Consider what each group of country
produces and exports to other countries and the type of industries they represent.
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