Selective or inaccurate observation: confirmatory information seeking. A series of objective analysis: the observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. Characteristic: self-correcting, public: info freely communicated from one researcher to another, objective, empirical-o(cid:271)ser(cid:448)i(cid:374)g: per(cid:272)ei(cid:448)e/(cid:272)lassify (cid:449)hat you"re tryi(cid:374)g to study, systematic and cumulative. Positivist paradigm: deduction: relies on empirical research/statistical data, to make generalization, predict or explain. Interpretive paradigm: induction: description of an experience or phenomenon, to understand, not predict or generalize. Critical paradigm: challenge status quo and majority perception, to promote change. Induction: observation first, then theory, creating general rule based on observation. Deduction: theory first (try to make predictions, prediction about specific instance based on general rule or theory. Phase 3: effects of the medium: social, psychological, cognitive, affective, behavioral. Phase 4: how the medium can be improved: pro-social, information, entertaining. Formal statement regarding relationship between variables and is tested directly. Positive relation: both relationships go up. Negative relation: one goes up and the other goes down.