Jalal MW 1:30-2:45
Study Questions for Mid-Term
The two essays willaccount for 80% of the grade. Make sure to read the questions carefully
and answer each of the sub-clauses. The following themes should help you prepare for the
1.How did Indian civilization and tradition respond to new ideas and incursion of new peoples
in the pre-Mughal period?
2. What were the primary features of sovereignty in ancient India? Comment on the nature of
empires in India’s ancient history? How did India fare in periods of political decentralization?
3. Were Muslimincursions a departure from India’s ancient past? How were conquests
achieved and what role did containment and conversions play in the consolidation of Muslim
4. What was the nature of the state and political economy in the period of the Delhi Sultanate?
5. In what ways, if any, was the Mughal empire different from those that had preceded
it? What were some of the main political and cultural achievements of the Mughals?
How significant was the role of Islam in Mughal governance of India? Assess the nature
of Mughal sovereignty and the ways in which this was manifested in their artistic and
architectural creations? What were the factors that marked the end of Mughal
hegemony in the 18th century?
o Moved from iqta to mansab
Dehli sultanate– Iqta- non heriditory land grants. Iqtadar- collect
revenue from land
Mughals- mansabdari had ranks- calvalry for imperial army. Non
heridetory system. Military aspect
British-zamindari system. Permenant settlement- later.
o Jizya- taxed non muslimfor aman.
o More expensive than delhi sultanate- expanded more, more expensive
o Political- land annexation into Mughal empire Akbar- Kabul, gujarat
o Jahangir- deccan
o Agricultural mostly, but also had a lot of international trade
o Main language- Persian
o Arts- miniture paintings- indo-persion style
o North indian classical music
o Archetechure- red fort, taj mahal
o Mughals ruling majority non muslims o Akbar inermarries, gives hindus high mansabdari- islamnot main guiding force.
Abolished jizya. Accommodation, assimilation, discussions in fatepur sakri.
During Aurangzeb- shift to orthodoxy
o Sovereigny was there. Lion- in paintings
o Borrowing, and re-borrowing, but maintaining identity
o Deccan campaigns- loss of money- tax harshly
o Aurangzeb’s death major end of greater Mughals- 1707
o Assertion of regional lands- marathas and Sikhs
6. What propelled the English East Company to establish political dominion in India?
What contributed to its ultimate political and military success?
o British acquired india in a fit of absentmindedness—but not rly. Many factors
played, 1757- Battle of plassey
o 1765- battle of buxar - right to diwani – bengals
o Support of traders and merchant classes.
o Textiles expensive- had to pay for it in silver
o Money revenues form Bengal and other regions- subsidiary alliance
o Collaboration between capitalist Indians
Mir jahan (helped Robert Clive against Suraj ab dulla)
o Military might.
1802 treaty of vasai- marathas
anglo-afghan wars- depleted treasury
* staggered conquest
7. Why did the military mutiny of 1857 precipitate such widespread civilian uprisings?
What were the main strands in the mutiny and why did it fail?
o Mutiny/ war of independence. Importance of 1857.
Reasons- rifles- beef and pig fat= alienation sepoys were feeling
Meerut, north India- started there (mangal pandey) went to delhi- made
Mughal emperor head of rebellion (shah zafar)
o Doctrine of lapse- no male heir- territory goes to British
o Peasants angry with capitalist class – they get revenue from peasents (money
lenders get money)- the money lenders now have right t