History 46 Fall 2013
Jalal MW 1:30-2:45
Study Questions for Mid-Term
The two essays will account for 80% of the grade. Make sure to read the questions carefully
and answer each of the sub-clauses. The following themes should help you prepare for the
1.How did Indian civilization and tradition respond to new ideas and incursion of new
peoples in the pre-Mughal period?
• Vedic, Mauryan, Gupta ages- traditions, had
o Brahmadic dominance over majority Shramanik Hinduism
Tightly knit hindu hierarchy, many books don’t even mention Muslims
o Varna and jati caste
Idea of tortoise just ignore the people. Many writings don’t mention
More dynamic, people came, but old kept maintaining
• Who came-
o In 712, muhmaad bin qasim, a Turkish slave conquered Sindh
o In 997, Ghanzi- a tukish slave came to India- conducted many raids. Ex
somnath- able to do so since India rich, but decentralized- wasn’t religious
iconiclasitism –since Rajendra Chola raided somnath also- just tons of wealth
o In 1192, Gauri destroys Ghanzi’s mini empire and also victory over Pritiviraj
from Rajput, and sets up the Delhi Sultanates
o Delhi Sulanates- 1206-1526
Build Qutab Minar- Muslim Influence in India- also symbols of
dominance and Turkish Pride (not entirely muslim, more regional)
Iqta system- land grants. Indians had to work, and give land revenue to
2. What were the primary features of sovereignty in ancient India? Comment on the
nature of empires in India’s ancient history? How did India fare in periods of political
• Primary- rulers with decentralized rule since other regional kingdoms also there.
• Empires- Vedic, Maurayan, Gupta
o Political decentralization
Separate regional (deccan) kingdoms
• India was doing really well- trading, getting tons of gold and money- doing well, but
3. Were Muslim incursions a departure from India’s ancient past? How were conquests
achieved and what role did containment and conversions play in the consolidation of Muslim power?
• Qasim, Ghazni, Gauri, Sufism-
• No, dynamic- India had continuity and dynamic arrivals and departures. Muslims also
• Conquests achieved- using mansabdari system. Cannons, afghanistani methods of
strong horses and trained methods. “gunpowder empire”
• First battle of paniput 1526 Babur and Lodis- Babur won
• Containment- helped in conquest since people converted
• Conversions- mostly Hindu lower classes, with help of Sufis as intermediate
o Consolidation of muslim power – gave legitimacy which was so strong, didn’t
leave until even after Mughal decline.
4. What was the nature of the state and political economy in the period of the Delhi
• State economy
o Still had regional kingdoms. Had Iqta and iqtadar system of land grants as
salary and way to keep people loyal. Not hereditary
• Political economy
o 4 dynasties- first Turkish slaves rule, then upper class elite Muslims take over
later on in dynasties.
o Still many regional kingdoms-esp in deccan
o Interminginleing of sharia and chill law- eclectic
o built a mosque with jain and hindu pillars- still a mosque
5. In what ways, if any, was the Mughal empire different from those that had preceded
it? What were some of the main political and cultural achievements of the Mughals?
How significant was the role of Islam in Mughal governance of India?Assess the nature
of Mughal sovereignty and the ways in which this was manifested in their artistic and
architectural creations? What were the factors that marked the end of Mughal
hegemony in the 18th century?
• Mughal different
o More centralized- made alliances with others, integrated and became new, yet
o examples- mansabdari system- military and rank- alliances with Hindu
princes- added to mansabdari system+ marriages with Hindu princesses
o expanded more- more expensive
o incorporated jizya- tax for aman
• Political and cultural achievements
Large land expansion, Bengal and Gujarat byAkbar, Deccan by
Jahangir- grew in size, and loyalty- Mansabdari system
more tolerance- Akbar got rid of jazya
Cultural architecture, and arts flourished, incorporated other styles.
Indian classical music created, raags ex. Tansen’s mulahar and rag
darpana created 1666
• Islam in Mughal governance- sharia important, but quanon-e-shahi more used. Understood that they ruled a majority who were non-muslims, had to take that into
o Ulema important, but also had other Religions in high ranks of court
o Had religious discussions in fatehpur sikri with other religions
o Intermarry- favortite wife was Jodhabhai
o Maan singh- high in rank
o His economic guide was raja todarmal
o ex. used Indian architecture to build mosques and tombs- borrowing but
example, taj, red fort, copied many indian styles, but used persion and
the end, it was a Mughal creation.
Also- started the miniature paintings- painting lion of Mughals and
cow (lamb) of India together- peace and unity
o Also- influenced by renaissance- but created own style with some elements of
o Humanyan brought 2 persion painters with him to India- they worked with
indian painters to create a unique indo-persion style that was more light and
• End of hegemony- death of Aurangzeb 1707- high military debt- increased taxes,
made mansabdari hereditary and added more to one- people angry- looing power but
still maintained legitimacy. Regional kingdoms gain more strength.
6. What propelled the English East Company to establish political dominion in India?
What contributed to its ultimate political and military success?
o Stated trading with India under Jahangir- interested in large amount of wealth
and materials India had
Traded silver for their Indian textiles – but cumbersome to carry all
that silver across the world
Interested in finding ways to get money without having to pay.
o And so- Interested in Eastern India- Calcutta
o 1757- battle of plassey. Robert clive, bribes Mir Jaffar and other Indian traders
to betray prince-Nawad siraj ad dulla- dies fighting. Scared English with the
“black hole” in Calcutta- suffocated English prisoners from first war that he
• Use of traitors in the shape of traders, ex. Mir Jaffar, Jaget Seth, Omichand- helped
British take rule.
• Military success—used revenue from Bengal- rich- Diwani- 1765- right to collect
revenue won from Battle of Buxar.
o Also success- staggered conquest.
Wellesley- 1802 defeated Maratha- mahadaji scindvia- treaty of vasai-
embarrassing loss of land and rights for Maratha.
7. Why did the military mutiny of 1857 precipitate such widespread civilian uprisings?
What were the main strands in the mutiny and why did it fail?
• Made a big impact to British Company Raj o Reasons
General enlistment act 1856-
• Had to cross kala pani- apposed to doing so
• Brahmanic dominance in army now not- elite brahmans angry
their status taken away from them.
Lee Enflied Rifles
• Hindus and muslims angry with use of pig and cow fat for
High revenue taxes- agricultural people angry since had to pay a lot!
And had to grow items such as jute and indigo