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Tufts University
Political Science
Malik Mufti

Hawthorne • Puritans vs Merrymounters o Created the idea of the self  Puritans wanted close relationship with God  Merrymounters emphasized individual o Puritans were realists, Merrymounters were liberals o Wolves in the forest  Always take precaution  Puritans were always ready to fight back  Merrymounters thought everything was ok o Merrymounters were just there  Lack of productivity, but had no conflict o Puritans were more violent  Hardworking  Their triumph started America Tocqueville • French • Wrote Democracy in America o Differences between Europeans and Americans o Democracy would be the new thing o Military courage was most important virtue of old world o Greatest fear was conformity  America lacked assabiya or envy for glory  Mediocre o War is good, brings forward values  Must be with outside state, no civil wars Post WWII • Britain and France wanted to completely destroy Germany • Ally Control System o France and USSR wanted destabilized Germany o US and Britain wanted robust Germany • US and USSR o US started to favor smaller governments o USSR becomes more ambitious and starts expanding Kennan • American diplomat in Moscow • Wrote X article • Opposed every American war after WWII o Shouldn’t care about anyone else o Should only care about US, France Germany, UK, Russia, Japan  No where else has anything to contribute o Contain Communism o Capitalists wait for Communism to die, Communism wait for Capitalism to die • Opponents believe in moral obligation to fight Communism, shouldn’t wait for it die Cold War Ideology • Bipolar world order • Economic Ideology fueled Communism and USSR • Americans become more ideologically o Wilsonism liberalism  Liberal ideas, international institutions  Free trade, ultimately world peace  US has many workers, need good markets for prosperity • Conflict lasted for decades, but ended without a conflict Post WWII Reconstruction • All other nations were destroyed, American grew 250% • Marshall Plan o Offer aid to European countries o More American hegemony o Creating markets abroad for America • Bretton Woods System  o Planned rules for commercial and financial relations o Creation of IMF and World Bank • Monetary Funds, Gold Standard o British hegemony with the pound o US emerges  Suez Canal • Battle between Egypt and Britain and US o Egypt wants independence from Britain, uses canal  • French and British intervene, Egypt blocks off canal, have to buy oil at market value o Tries to take loans out from IMF, they refuse • US hegemony o Protecting their interests and preventing Communism from spreading European Integration • French Nationalism o Don’t want another Germany • Economic Efficiency o Import Substitution Monet and Degaulle • Maximize French Interests and Keep British out • Degaulle o Very strict, against US, used European movement to shut out US and USSR o Floating rate regime  Currency floating around, they wanted to undermine American economic  hegemony • SEU­1986 o Sparked EU and renewed economic sense of urgency o Fear of being left alone • Maastricht Treaty 1991 o Euro replaces national currency in all nations o EU established in 1993 • Lisbon Treaty 2007 o Beginnings of an integrated and unified defense policy • Decrease in free trade between world in EU o Keep production within Europe o Internal integration Centers of Global Economic Influence­1971 • USSR o Fell apart • Germany o Very powerful, focu
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