PS-0061 Study Guide - Otto Von Bismarck, 1905 Russian Revolution, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando

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The hellenic world had its own bipolar international system. The two great powers were athens and sparta. The athenian-spartan rivalry dated to the persian wars, when athens gained dominance. Later on, in 435 bc, the city-states corinth and. Athens and corinth with sparta, beginning the peloponnesian war. This was the last of major religious wars. Bohemia, it eventually widened to include almost all of europe. At the end, france became the most powerful. After the thirty years war, french cardinal mazarin led peace negotiations. The peace treaty introduced state sovereignty, created a basis for international law, ended papal authority, created new states (switzerland and the netherlands), and saw a rise in the balance of power and a growth in nationalism. Holy roma empire"s dominance and paved the way for the modern state. A laissez-faire balance of power existed with five great powers (france, austria, Britain, russia, and prussia) that shared beliefs and expectations, including the acceptance of the status quo.

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