chap 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY-0001
Professor
Sam Sommers
Semester
Fall

Description
04/15/2014 6.1  Learning Objectives Define classical conditioning Differentiate between US, UR, CS, and CR Describe the role of learning in the development and treatment of phobias and drug addiction Discuss the evolutionary significance of classical conditioning Describe the Rescorla­Wagner model of classical conditioning What ideas guide the study of learning? Behaviorism ▯ focuses on observable aspects of learning, founded by John B. Watson Classical­conditioning theory developed by Ivan Pavlov to account for the learned association between neutral stimuli  and reflexive behaviors Conditioning ▯ conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus (conditioned stimulus  predicts  the unconditioned stimulus, isn’t just contiguous with it) Terms Learning: a relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Acquisition: the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Extinction: a process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated  without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous recovery: a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges after the  presentation of the conditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization: learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned  stimulus produce the conditioned response Stimulus discrimination: a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently  associated with the unconditioned stimulus Phobia: an acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation Rescorla­Wagner model: a cognitive model of classical conditioning; it states that the strength of the CS­US  association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected or surprising 6.2  Learning objectives Define operant conditioning Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment Distinguish between schedules of reinforcement Identify biological and cognitive factors that influence operant conditioning How does operant conditioning differ from classical conditioning? Operant conditioning ▯ learned association between behavior and its consequences, developed by B. F. Skinner to  explain why some behaviors are repeated and some are not Reinforcement increases a behavior’s likelihood of being repeated Punishment reduces that likelihood Positive reinforcement and positive punishment involve the administration of a stimulus Negative reinforcement and negative punishment involve the removal of a stimulus Four schedules of reinforcement: variable ratio, fixed ratio, variable interval, and fixed  interval (each has a distinct effect on behavior) Terms Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning): a learning process in which the consequences of  an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Law of effect: Thorndike’s general theory of learning – any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is  likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again Reinforcer: a stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated Positive reinforcement: the administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being  repeated Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus to incr
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