SOCI 1040 Study Guide - Final Guide: Heteronormativity, Gnosticism, Disconnection

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6 Feb 2017

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Gender and Love
Illouz: Love = pain and suffering; individual locate problems/pain w/in oneself and w/ others; Love emphasizes
gender stereotypes despite world being more egalitarian “symbolic gendering”; Men should still ask women out,
courtship = men “choose” women = “worthy of men”; The self: will (how we want), recognition (our self worth),
and desire (what we want); Disconnection of love w/ religion = “free market” (endless choice) = competition
Shift from “old” (religion, community, order, stability) to “new” (secular, change, equality)
K Lamont: Economic/workforce egalitarian but traditional gendered roles in love; Women look for relationships
while men try to avoid it = men get to “choose” their partners; Women will never explicitly ask guys out, but take
initiative in more sneaky ways; Men pay on first date not bc of breadwinning ability but bc of chivalry;
breadwinning and childcare overall is expected to be shared and egalitarian couples despite romantic traditionalism
Kimmel: Love exists no matter what, but social acceptability and the type of love changes a lot; Marriage is an
expectation, it was relatively recently that the notion of love was introduced; Love is feminine = tenderness,
powerlessness, and emotional expression; men only want sex; Men fall in and out of love more immediately and
passionately; women more pragmatic; Culture (not gender) explains why men want sex, women are picky, and
interpretations of love
Martin: Heteronormativity = assumes heterosexuality, privilege, hegemonic; in Disney love is “magic”
The “other” are villains, kooky sidekicks, etc.; ethnic main characters are hypersexualized
“Exotic” is sexiness; white main characters are delicate; all females have a lot of body exposed
Firmin: Exposure to “other” = familiarity and more likely to date “other” (class, race, location)
Non-whites more likely than whites to date interracially (dating more common than marriage)
Young more open to date interracially than old; men more than women
Gender and Family
Family = social institution, expectation, economic mode of survival, but is it biological or social?
Rise in reproductive tech = blurs line of family to blood, marriage, or emotions
Heteronormative fam: white, protestant man/wife, breadwinning man; gays seen as unfit parents, single-mothers
viewed as immoral; the STATE (gov’t) encourages marriage for some only
K Munsch: Men, African Americans, and younger adults are most likely to engage in infidelity; When unsure about
personality, act in extreme behaviors associated w/ identity to restore; Men w/ masc threatened (economically
dependent) more likely to engage in infidelity; Women w/ more masc (economic) LESS likely to cheat
K Padavic: “Mathers”: false notion that in lesbian couples there’s a “father” and “mother” parent
Lack of biological but mostly legal standings creates a distance bw parents and child
Mothers: “nurturing and maternal”, fathers: less nurturing, typically butch women; some feel neither = Mathers
category: flexible, captures idea of parenting outside of gender
Rubin: Belief: Man “helps” woman in domestic sphere like woman “helps” man financially: nice but not necessary
bc each has their own role in society; Asian/Latino men less likely to help in domestic sphere bc intergenerational
families supports old traditional ways instead of developing a new mentality; Black men offer the most
Gans: Blacks unemployed and economically unstable (reproduced especially w/ single-parents)
In times of economic crisis, fathers leave or are pushed out of the house to go find better work
K Rehel: Lack of paternity leave makes egalitarian relationships divided w/ children men feel like helpers and truly
believe they don’t have the same instincts and women; Many can’t afford unpaid leave, those w/ paid leave it’s not
worth it $$; Maternal gatekeeping of leave: women maximize their leave by taking their husbands
K Messener: “Team moms” control organizational aspects of child’s sports, not coaching
Gender and Religion
Denies women divinity and spiritual equality due to a lack of holiness; subordinates to men
Kimmel: Monotheistic assumption of God as man, planning out women to be subordinate
Goddess traditions viewed as deviants = became thought of as “witches”
Gnosticism: banished gospels practiced heretical texts banned from the Bible
Policing of the body and sexuality is a man’s job for women
Clark: Pious black women pledged to the corporal and spiritual care of the city's enslaved and free women of color
Creolization: mixing of native and European cultures together for new identities
Voodoo w/ spirit world; spirits of dif genders had same amt of power; Religious traditions occur due to place/time
Gender and the Life Cycle
K Musto: Organized swimmers by ability in highest category lost all genders; BUT recreational freetime gendered
K Calasanti: Social constructed stigma of being old; attempt to pass as younger
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