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Midterm

APR 280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Institutional Review Board, Primum Non Nocere, Informed Consent


Department
APR
Course Code
APR 280
Professor
Jason Zhou
Study Guide
Midterm

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APR 280 Midterm Review:
Research Procedure
Research: an attempt to discover something
2 basic questions a beginning researcher must learn to answer:
How to use research methods and statistical procedures
When to use research methods and statistical procedures
Basic research procedure:
Problem discovery
Research method
Research design
Sampling
Data gathering
Data processing and data analysis
Conclusion and report
Dumbed down research procedure:
Question
Method
Data
Analysis
Conclusion
Research ethics:
Autonomy:
Aka voluntary
The subject has a choice to participate
The choice is made without coercion
The choice is made without undue influence
The subject has foreknowledge of risks/benefits
“Free to come, free to go”
Nonmaleficence:
Aka do no harm
It is wrong to intentionally inflict harm on subjects
In communication research, physical harm is rare, but psychological
stress is common
Beneficence:
Aka do good
Stipulates a positive obligation to remove existing harms and confer
benefits on others
Balance benefits and risks/harms
Justice:
People who are equal in relevant respects should be treated equally
Privacy:
Protection of privacy

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Anonymity
Student pool
Confidentiality
Password protection
Participants should be told who has access to the data
Institutional Review Board
Designed to review and monitor methods used for research to make sure they
are ethical
REQUIRED
IRB application
Purpose of study
Method, design, procedure, materials
Sampling method
Risks and benefits
Informed consent
Privacy
Recruiting procedure
Time
Informed Consent: a voluntary agreement to participate in research
Purpose and procedure
Voluntary to participate
Foreseeable risks
Benefits
Contact information if subjects have questions
Research Elements:
Public vs. Private Research:
Public: available to the public
Private:
Market research and consulting firms
It aims to facilitate decision making
Data and conclusions are not shared with the public
Variable:
Anything that varies
A characteristic, number or quantity that increases or decreases over time
or takes different values in different situation
Independent vs. Dependent:
Independent: changes on its own, not a result of another factor
Dependent: variable that changes as the result of some other factor
The change of an independent variable causes the change of a
dependent variable
Qualitative vs. quantitative
Quantitative: more generalizable than qualitative
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