BSC 108 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Ionic Bonding, Atomic Number, Sodium Bicarbonate

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1. What is Biology?
Scientific study of life
2. What are the 3 domains?
Eukarya
Bacteria
Archae
3. What are the 4 kingdoms in Eukarya?
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia.
4. What are the properties of life?
Order
Reguation
Growth & development
Energy processing
Response to environment
Reproduction
Evolution
5. How do you define something as living?
Have order
Regulate themselves (homeostasis)
Grow & develop
Use energy
Respond to environment
Reproduce
Evolve
6. What are some common themes in biology?
The Scope of Life and Emergent Properties
Organisms exchange matter and energy within ecosystems
Cells are an organism’s basic unit
The continuity of life is based on the information in DNA
Diversity is the hallmark of life and the diverse forms of life fit their functions
Evolution
7. What is the scientific method? Know the components of it.
Observe and generalize
Formulate a hypothesis
Make a testable prediction
Experiment or observe
Modify hypothesis as necessary and repeat steps 3 & 4
8. What is a hypothesis?
A tentative answer to a question
9. What are the components of a good hypothesis?
Answer to a question
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“If” “then” statement
10. Be able to identify the difference between a hypothesis, prediction, observation, and
control.
Hypothesis
i. Its a proposed explanation in the beginning of the scientific method
1. Its purpose is to investigate to see if the hypothesis is proven
Prediction
i. What you think will happen in the experiment
Observation
i. What you observe when you conduct the experiment
Control
i. The things in the experiment that are controlled
ii. You need to have controls in order to have valid data
11. Be able to take an experimental plan and determine the appropriate hypothesis,
prediction, conclusion etc.
12. What is a theory in science?
Comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence
More general enough to spin off many new testable hypotheses
13. What are the limits of science?
Science cannot be 100% positive about something being true
i. There is no way for science to run a million tests and take into account all
living things on the earth
14. What is an atom?
the smallest unit of matter that retains properties of an element
15. What is an atom composed of?
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
16. What are the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons?
Protons
i. Positively charged
ii. Atomic mass = 1 dalton
iii. Determine element
Neutrons
i. No charge
ii. Atomic mass = 1 dalton
iii. Determine isotope
Electrons
i. Negative charge
ii. Atomic mass = negligible
iii. Chemical reactions
17. What is an ion?
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Atoms or molecules that are electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing
electrons
18. What is the difference between an ion and isotope?
Isotope - Different number of neutrons - same number of protons and electrons
Ion - electrically charged bc of gaining or losing of electrons
19. What is the association between isotopes and fossils?
Some isotopes are radioactive, so geologists can determine the ages of rocks
and fossils by analyzing the isotopes found in them (14 c)
20. What is energy?
The capacity to do work; make a change in matte
21. What is a neutral atom?
Electrons = protons
Not an isotope
22. What is a trace element?
Required for life in small amounts
23. What is a radioactive isotope?
Nucleus decays, giving off particles & energy
24. How many electrons are found in the first energy shell? Second? Third?
Each orbital has a maximum of 2 electrons
First energy level has 1 orbital
i. 2 electrons
2nd energy level has 4 orbitals
i. 8 electrons
3rd energy levels
i. 8 electrons
25. Be able to place electrons in the appropriate shell.
26. What is the difference between atomic number and atomic mass?
Atomic Number - number of protons, determines element
Atomic Mass - number of protons and neutrons
27. What are the different types of chemical bonds?
Covalent
Ionic
Hydrogen
28. How are they formed?
Covalent- sharing of electrons
Ionic - attraction between positive & negative, transfer of electrons
Hydrogen - Unequal sharing electrons
i. Two hydrogen atoms joined to one oxygen atom by single covalent bond
29. Which bond is the strongest, weakest?
Covalent
i. Strongest strength
Ionic
i. Medium strength
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