Textiles Exam 3 Notes
• What is spinning?
➢ Spinning: the process of producing a yarn from staple fibers
o Spun yarn: a continuous strand of staple fibers held together by some
• What are the different types of yarn?
➢ Staple: short fibers
o Any natural or manufactured fiber produced in or cut to a short length
measured in inches or centimeters.
➢ Single: one strand
o Consists of one strand of fibers held together by some mechanism.
➢ Simple: same appearance along length
o A yarn alike in all its parts.
➢ Filament: continuous filament
o A yarn made from filament fibers; smooth or bulky are possible.
➢ Plied (Ply): two or more strands, twisted.
o Consists of two or more strands of fibers held together by twist or
some other mechanism
▪ Cord (Cabled): consists of two or more ply yarns held together by
twist or some other means.
➢ Complex: variable appearance along length
• What does the term ply refer to?
➢ Ply yarn: consists of two or more strands of fibers held together by twist.
o Can go a step further to cord: two or more ply yarns twisted together.
• Does adding plies add strength?
➢ Yes as well as yarn diameter, uniformity and quality.
Filament Fibers vs. Staple Fibers
• Filament fiber: refers to fibers that are extremely long (length measured in
miles or kilometers) or yarns made of these fibers.
➢ Filament yarn: a yarn made from filament fibers; smooth or bulky are
possible. Made in a spinneret.
➢ Type of yarns: Smooth-filament (mono or multi-filament), tape, and
o Smooth-filament yarn: a yarn of filament fibers that have not been
crimped or textured.
▪ Regular or conventional filament yarns.
▪ Uniform as they come from the spinneret. The fibers are parallel.
There are no protruding ends, so no linting or pilling. They give
little bulk, loft, or cover to fabric. Fabrics made from them shed
soil. o Tape yarn: inexpensive yarns produced from extruded polymer film
by extrusion or the split-fiber method.
▪ Products: technical
o Network yarn: made of fibers that are connected at points along their
▪ Less bulky and dense and more comfortable compared to tape
▪ Products: technical
• Staple fiber: any natural or manufactured fiber produced in or cut to a short
length measured in inches or centimeters.
➢ Staple yarn: short fibers
➢ Types of yarns: Spun yarns
o Spun yarns: continuous strands of staple fibers usually held together
by twist. They have a fuzzy surface and protruding fiber ends, greater
amounts of twist compared to filament yarns, short fibers that pull
apart, and partially parallel fibers.
• Turns per inch: (tpi) a measure of yarn twist.
➢ How does tpi affect properties of yarn?
o As twist increases, yarn strength and yarn stiffness increase up to a
point, level off, then begin to fall at very high twist levels.
o Lower twist yarns: harrier, pills more, more comfortable skin contact,
and less expensive
o Low twist: a very small amount of twist used in filament yarns that
keeps fibers together in processing and fabrication.
o Napping twist: a small amount of twist used to produce lofty spun
yarns for fabrics that will be napped (brushing fibers to surface).
▪ For flannelette, flannel, blankets, etc.
o Average twist: the most commonly used amount of twist, in the range
of 20 to 30 tpi for yams.
o Hard/Voile twist: a high amount of yarn twist in the range of 30 to
40 tpi, which produces a harsher fabric hand.
▪ Used for voile
o Crepe twist: refers to a yarn with extremely high twist and great
➢ S and Z twist
o S-twist: if, when held in a vertical position, the spirals conform to the
direction of slope of the central portion of the letter S.
o Z-twist: the direction of spirals conforms to the slope of the central
portion of the letter Z.
▪ Z-twist is more common for weaving yarns.
Direct vs. Indirect systems of yarn size
• Direct systems: used for filament yarns. Terms of weight per unit length.
➢ The higher the number, the coarser the yarn. ➢ Uses fixed lengths of yarn
o Denier: weight in grams of 9,000 meters of yarn, smooth and bulky
▪ If 9,000 meters of yarn weighs 50 grams, it’s called a 50-denier
o Tex: weight in grams of 1,000 meters of yarn
o Decitex: weight in grams of 10,000 meters of yarn. A decitex is close
in value to a denier.
➢ They are reported as A/B.
➢ Example: 1,000/200 1,000 denier yarn with 200 filaments present.
• Indirect systems: coarser yarn will take fewer hanks
o English Yarn Count System: English numbering system
▪ Often symbolized Ne
▪ Uses fixed weights of yarn reciprocal linear density measure,
where length is measured per unit of mass.
▪ Count how many lengths, called a hank, weigh one pound.
❖ Ex. 10 hanks of cotton yarn that weigh one pound, this is 10s
▪ Length of a hank depends upon the spinning system:
❖ Cotton: 1 hank = 840 yards
❖ Worsted: 1 hank = 560 yards
❖ Woolen cut: 1 hank = 300 yards
❖ Woolen run: 1 hank = 1,600 yards
o Yarn count: (yarn number) the number of yarns needed to make up
one pound of yarn.
▪ Not to be confused with thread count: the number of yarns in an
inch of fabric
▪ The higher the yarn number, the more yards per pound, hence the
finer the yarn.
▪ Coarse: 12 or less
▪ Medium: 12-40
▪ Fine: 50 and up
o Yarn size: fineness of a yarn
▪ Single yarns have an “s” following the yarn number
▪ Plied yarns have a “/n” following the yarn number, where the yarn
number given is the yarn number of the individual ply, and n is the
number of plies
• What do texturizing processes do?
➢ All processes increase yarn bulk and most increase yarn stretch.
➢ Texturizing continuous filament yarns are often referred to as bulked
continuous filament yarns.
➢ The rationale behind texturizing is that all manufactured yarns are made
in continuous filament form. Many of these are then cut into staple lengths and put through the complete spinning process, restoring them to
a continuous strand of twisted staple fibers to be woven or knot.
➢ It attempts to replicate spun yarn characteristics in fabrics witho