CTD 231 Final: CTD 231 Final Exam Review
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Department
Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course
CTD 231
Professor
Reaves
Semester
Spring

Description
CTD 231 Final Exam Review Chapters 10-15 • Booked seam – Formed by layering cut edges on top of another. • Bound seams – made by encasing the raw edges of a seam with fabric strips. • Busted – seam is passed open on the inside of the garment. • Chain-stitch machine – Interlocks several threads pulled form cones and eliminates the need for frequent bobbin changes. • Enclosed seam – second most common seam type found within the SS class completed in 2 stages. • Facings – form of edge finish usually visible only on the inside of the garment. • Flat seams – join fabric piles by butting the raw edges together and securing them with 600-class cover stitch or zigzag stitch. • Hems – most common form of edge finish. • Lapped seams – formed by overlapping the seam allowances of two or more plies of fabric and sewing them together. With more than 100 variations, this is the largest seam class. • Lockstitch machine – The most common in stitch making and requires both a needle thread and a bobbin thread. • Safety stitches – contain 2 parallel rows of stitches that produce a very secure seam • Seam – stitching that holds together pieces of fabric • Seam allowance – Extension between the row of stitching and the edges of the fabric.’ • Stitch class – 3-digit number identified stitches. • Stitches - Configurations of interlacing thread executed in specific repeated units. • Superimposed seams – Most used seam class, formed by stacking plies of fabric on top of one another and sticking the together near the edge Chapter 10 • Methods of Pattern Development ➢ Flat Pattern – involves making styling changes to basic two-dimensional pattern o Sloper: five-piece pattern of previously developed and perfected basic body blocks o Select previously perfected final pattern or body similar to new style o First pattern version usually made up in fabric as first sample ➢ Pattern Drafting – begins from scratch for each garment style. Done by hand or digitstly nd o 1 ) body measurements are taken. 2 ) style lines and ease added, resulting in 2D paper patterns. o More time-consuming and costly; used by higher-priced, fashion-forward producers ➢ Draping – fabric draped or shaped around the body form to create a 3D garment prototype o Once fabric pattern is established, shaped fabric is flattened and its outline transferred to paper or digitalized to create 2D pattern blocks o Used for higher price points, especially with unique silhouettes ➢ Combination methods: ➢ New technologies: o Cutting edge – draping styles directly on computer; elusive due to nature of body movements and variations in textile properties o Body scan technology – enables the retrieval of 3D body measurements from consumer, applied digitally to produce customized product • Patternmaking Needs ➢ Design-Driven Product Development o Integrity of design is more important than the production efficiency o Willing to deal with more complex patterns and construction o Fabrics less standard, markers vary in efficiency, specialized sewing capabilities, smaller quantities o Offshore contractors o May make in-house for accuracy and fit ➢ Manufacturing-Driven Product Development o “Commoditize” style by lowering level of detail, uniqueness, or fit o Simplify construction techniques o Patterns made easy to sew to produce as many finished garments at lowest possible price in timely manner • Sourcing Patternmaking ➢ In-House Patternmaking – within the firm o Fit: experience with target market allows accommodations to meet customer expectations; market proximity allows for frequent fittings o Rely on computerized systems to provide greater accuracy, pattern storage, grading, and customized dress forms ➢ Patternmaking Services – viable options for those without the resources to hire their own patternmakers o Computerized system gives accuracy and efficiency without investment o Located regionally so corrections made quickly and efficiently o Maintain files of previous work ➢ Full-Package Vendors o Assume all responsibility for patternmaking, allowing developers to concentrate on their own core competencies o May be sacrificing consistency, fit, and construction details across the brand o Common in Asia, Central and South America and Caribbean is looking to compete • Standards – characteristics used as the basis of judgements made about products ➢ Established to reflect two major goals: o Enables a company to make a profit o Meet target customer’s expectations ➢ Framework for decision in development of product specifications ➢ Understand the firm’s specific standards for product sizing and fit, intrinsic quality standards that provide a baseline for consistency of product, and performance standards and for materials and finished product ➢ Decided within the firm  styling requirements, construction methods, and measurements for samples ➢ Imposed by outside agencies: o FTC  specific care, fiber identification labels o CPSC  flammability standards for children’s sleepwear • Specifications (specs) – graphic representations and written descriptions of styling, materials, dimensions, production procedures, and finishing instructions ➢ Open specs – information provided is generic and contains only very basic facts; allows flexibility for producer or contractor ➢ Closed specs – require exact materials or predetermine exact supplier; ensure consistency, but can increase end cost of product ➢ Tolerances – variation from identified criteria allowed during production; determine which products will be accepted for sale as first-quality products and which will be rejected ➢ Design specs – prototype specs, preliminary specs, or pre-adoption specs o Based on the line plan summary and initial prototype garments or specific styles ➢ Technical specs – all information needed for style to be readied for production o Occurs after a style is adopted and requires decisions as to how it will be produced o Focus on development or first production sample and sales samples ➢ Production specs/Engineering specs – for producing quantities of a product rather than individual prototype garments Chapter 11 • Sizing – assignment of individuals of particular body type into categories that reflect the body measurements of those in that size group ➢ Major source of sizing problems  diversity of U.S. population ➢ FTC, DOC attempted to standardize; but no mandatory standards in the U.S. • Women’s Sizing ➢ Sized for adult women; assigned numbers that reflect relationship of height, bust, waist, hip, and torso length measurements ➢ Sample size – represents body measurements from which full size range is developed ➢ Variations from one company to another can be extreme ➢ Manufacturing is contributing to the size confusion by vanity sizing (placing smaller size label on larger size garment) ➢ 7 Categories: misses, petites, talls, women’s plus, women’s petites, juniors, maternity • Men’s Wear ➢ More consistent sizing than women’s wear because men’s styles do not fluctuate as much as women’s ➢ Categories: o Suits, jackets, and coats o Pants o Men’s furnishings  shirts, underwear, sleepwear, ties and accessories o Young men’s • Children’s Sizing ➢ Originally based on age groups; consumer should now purchase sizes based on height and weight ➢ 5 Categories: Infants (0-8 months), toddlers (18-3 years), children’s (3-7 years), girls’ (7-11 years), boys’ (7-17 years) • Garment fit ➢ Grain – reflects the direction of threads in a fabric ➢ Set – reflects smooth fit with no unwanted wrinkles ➢ Line – way garment structural lines conform to the body ➢ Balance – right and left sides of body look even ➢ Ease – difference between body measurements of intended wearer and measurements of finished garment  varies depending on garment style, intended use, and fashion of the time ➢ Functional ease (wearing ease) – amount added to body measurements to compensate for body movements ➢ Design ease – reflects the amount added to combined body and functional ease measurements to make garment produce the look desired by the designer • Sizing Specifications ➢ Measurements must be clearly communicated on spec sheets for patternmaking and sampling o Key measurement points: collar circumference, bust or chest circumference, armhole, sleeve opening, sleeve length, and center-back length ➢ Tolerance – the difference between the allowable minimum or maximum on a process or finished garment. The type of product affects the amount of permitted tolerance ➢ Sampling process: styling and fit evaluated throughout the product development cycle o Sample garments produced and placed on dress forms to evaluate grain, set, line, and balance o To establish appropriate ease, sample garment are tried on by fit models (individuals selected to represent age and build of the target customer and conform to master size) ➢ Grading – process of scaling the master size of the garment to the range of sizes to be produced o Grade rules – amounts added or subtracted from each measurement as it changes from one size to the next ➢ Mass customization – application of mass production techniques to production of a single customer-configured garment o Body scanning and computerized alteration programs now make mass customization a possibility Chapter 12 • Quality standards ➢ Raw material standards – used to communicate with suppliers during the planning stages; help to define components used in production of finished garments ➢ Garment standards – diagnostic tools to measure the quality of product; defect guides (major and minor) • Quality specifications ➢ Quality specification evolve from company standards but are more detailed ➢ Specification libraries  accessibility to previously developed style, pattern, and measurement specification that can be recalled and reused ➢ Voluntary testing methods  on raw materials, sample garments (AATCC, ASTM) ➢ Sizing specifications o Measurements for every size o Finished garments outside tolerances are unacceptable • Labeling standards ➢ Mandatory labeling requirements o Fiber content – Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA)  wool must be identified; anything over 5% total weight o Manufacturing – FTC identification number or brand name for each manufacturer o Country of Origin – critical issue when imported (tariffs, trade agreements) o Care Labeling Rule – permanent ➢ Voluntary labeling o Trademarks o Warranties and Certification ▪ Implied Warrant: products do what they are designed to do (e.g., raincoat repels water) ▪ Written: legally binding (shrinkage) ▪ Most voluntary labeling is a marketing tool o Union labels o Size designation  voluntary but universal; EU required European sizing and metric units • Safety regulations ➢ Flammability o Flammable Fabric Act  affects mostly infant and children’s sleepwear in sizes 0-6X and 7-14 o Requires use of fabric finishes to retard the spread of flames ➢ Drawstrings and small parts o Concerns about risks of children strangling or chocking; drawstrings o Rules apply to snaps and buttons; size, pull strength, and sharpness of trim items regulated ➢ Lead content o Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act in 208 tightened regulations on lead content in apparel products • Specifications for stitches, seams, and edge finishes ➢ Stitches – configuration of thread that forms stitching and seams ➢ Seams – stitching holding fabric pieces together ➢ Seam allowance – extension between the row of stitching and the edges of the fabric ➢ Class 1: Superimposed Seams o Most commonly used class for joining fabrics; two fabrics are placed on one another perfectly and then warn together ▪ Sewn edges of fabrics remain on the same side ▪ Mostly used in inside seam for shirts, pants, & children’s wear ➢ Class 2: Lapped Seams o Two or more fabric pieces are joined by overlapping each other; ends of fabric are sewn in opposite directions o Largest number of variations; many are very specialized o Very strong seam because at least two lines of stitching are used o Not common in clothing, but is used in sewing denim jackets, jeans, and overalls ➢ Class 3: Bound Seams o Edges of seam enclosed in fabric tape; produces a neat edge on a seam exposed to view or to wear o Sometimes used as decorative purpose; binder fabric may be different colors o Used for finishing necklines, sleeve hems, interior waistbands of pants, and seams on unlined jackets and coats o Ideal for easily raveled edges, bulky fabric ➢ Class 4: Flat Seams o Fabric edges do not overlap; edges of fabrics are placed precisely next to one another o Zigzag stitch may be used for joining; looks the same on both sides o Widely used in shapewear, undergarments, lingerie, swimwear, high-stretch athletic apparel, and thermal underwear ➢ Class 6: Edge Finishes o Used to protect the fabric edge from unraveling o Extensively used o Hems and facings (3 finishing types) ▪ 1) secure folded with stitching ▪ 2) stitching used at fabric edge or to cover raw edge ▪ Apply a binding seam allowance to finish raw edge • Production Processes ➢ Marker making: digital or paper layout of all pattern pieces in the cut order plan o Fallout, or leftover scraps of fabric, should be kept to a minimum ➢ Spreading and cutting of fabric o Hand-guided o Vibrating or ultrasonics o Electric straight knife o Electric rotary cutters o Die-cutting machines o Water-jet cutters o Computer-driven laser cutters ➢ Assembly methods o Progressive Bundle System – small parts completed first, then attached to major components, then final assembly of major parts o Unit Production System – overhead transporter moves developing parts from station to station and operator attaches newest component or performs the appropriate task on each garment o Modular Manufacturing Method – group operators into teams and each team focuses on completing each ➢ Wet processing – adds chemical or physical finish to assembled garment ➢ Finishing – trimming threads, final inspection, repairing defects, pressing, folding, and packaging ➢ Packaging – addition of hang tags and belts; garments are folded or hung on hangers; items packaged for shipping • Postproduction ➢ Tolerance – difference between allowable minimum and maximum on process or measurement o If finished garments falls between those specs = acceptable o If it goes under or beyond the tolerance = rejected ➢ Construction criteria o Finished garments inspected to determine if they comply with written specs o In-process inspection  on manufacturing floor where corrections can still be made o End inspection  after product is finished; more waste  too late to correct flaws o To ensure acceptable quality levels in finished garment, criteria must be established and communicated before production ➢ Dealing with flawed products o Garments inspected when they come off the production line or when they arrive at the firm’s distribution center to check compliance with written specs o If not found to be first quality (meet specs) ▪ Repaired to join first-quality products ▪ Sent back to contractor as unacceptable ▪ Disposed of as irregulars o Inspection Rate ▪ Small quantity, very high cost garment = all are inspected ▪ Very large order = random sample; if these garments meet specs, entire lot is passed; if flaws are found, may inspect all and separate flawed pieces; may simply reject the entire lot ▪ Even with precautions, human error may run about 6% ▪ Well-written spec packages boost potential of receiving first quality and reduce costs Chapter 13 • Sourcing – practice of procuring materials and production elsewhere • Sourcing mix – combination of resources utilized for production • Sourcing strategies ➢ Domestic developers concentrate more on: o Product development o Brand building and marketing o Outsourcing production ➢ Off-shore contractors becoming more vertical o Going beyond production o Offering services such as patternmaking and grading ➢ Evaluate core competencies o These will determine sourcing requirements o The experience levels of product development team affect sourcing needs ➢ Must be dynamic  network of sourcing partners provides balance of capacity, flexibility, value, and efficiency • Sourcing options ➢ Sourcing domestically o Domestically owned  more control, but difficult to stay price competitive o Domestic contracting – manufacturing facilities in the same country as product developer (but not owned by the developer) o Advantages  quick response time, ease of communication, quality inspection is less costly, no risks with quotas, etc. ➢ Sourcing globally o Predominant model for acquiring production capacity o Most nation have apparel production, with my offering unique qualifications (lower costs, expertise, or availability of materials and labor) o U.S. imports from almost all nations, unless there is a government embargo against them • Sourcing methods ➢ Direct sourcing o Cut, Make, and Trim (CMT) ▪ Utilize domestic or off-shore contractors for cutting, manufacturing, and finishing garments ▪ Product developer provides: ❖ Designs ❖ Patterns ❖ Fabrics ❖ Control over creative ▪ Eliminates product developers’ financial investment in factories and labor o Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM)/Package Contractors ▪ Focuses on the manufacturing process, but vendor takes responsibility of sourcing and financing materials in addition to CMT production services, finishing, and packaging ▪ Product developer retains responsibility for: ❖ Product design ❖ Written standards and specifications ▪ Used more frequently in recent years; balance between CMT and full-package suppliers o Full-Package Suppliers ▪ Contractors, trading companies, or agents ❖ Source materials ❖ Provides all other services ✓ Design ✓ Patternmaking ✓ CMT ✓ Quality assurance ✓ Packaging and shipping ▪ Major burden of financing on contractor ▪ Developer files letter of credit to pay creditor once goods are loaded on vessel ➢ Sourcing agents o May act as intermediaries that assemble a team of off-short vendors for production o May coordinate sourcing of: ▪ Fabrics ▪ Fabric and product testing ▪ Color matching ▪ Garment manufacturing and finishing o Valuable partners when a company enters a new product category in which it lacks experience or the volume of a production run is small ➢ Trade fairs – brings producers, manufacturers, and retailers together; open only to the trade o Firms present product lines to retail buyers at “market weeks” to generate sales of materials, technology, machinery, finished products, and services ➢ Off-Shore facilities o Increase control of production processes and scheduling o Risks and responsibilities  initial investment, political climate, finding employees, fixed asset o Opening plans in free trade zones, which allows for duty-free movement of equipment and suppliers, avoids some risks ➢ Joint ventures  shared ownership of facility with a business based in another country o Less risky o Off-shore owners know culture and legalities o Capacity guaranteed, more control o Start-up costs lower and time is less, local access is greater ➢ Licensing o Domestic licensing extends brand value without having to produce it o Major brands can use name recognition by granting rights to use their label to companies with complementary core competencies o Receive a royalty in return for the use of name or symbol o International licensing  alternative to exporting, established presence in global markets without having to manufacture off-shore o Contract with business partner gives right to use brand name o The licensee (producer) does all marketing and distribution • International Trade Policy ➢ Tariff – tax on imported goods assessed by the country of import  to raise the prices of imported foreign goods, so people choose to buy cheaper goods made domestically ➢ Quota – annual limit on the volume of a product (by category) shipped from exporting country to importing country  to raise the prices of imported goods, so people choose to buy cheaper goods made domestically ➢ Embargo – prohibition from importing products from exporting nations  to punish a country economically ➢ Countries began negotiating bilateral agreements (between two countries) to set quota levels ➢ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) signed to liberalize trade, create more global markets ➢ World Trade Organization (WTO) replaced the GATT as permanent organization o Agreement of Textiles and Clothing (ATC) enacted to eliminate all quotas over a 10-year period • U.S. Trade Policy ➢ Pursuing and has approved many bilateral trade agreements with individual nations o Encourages trade o Decreases or eliminates tariffs on products imported from foreign countries ➢ Companies must be aware of changes in trade agreements that may affect tariff structure for their products before finalizing sourcing contracts with firms in other nations • Regional trade strengths ➢ The Americas o North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) ▪ 1994: Eliminated tariffs and quotas over a 15-year period in Canada, U.S., and Mexico o Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) ▪ Freedom from tariffs on products imported from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Dominican Republic if a certain quality of U.S. fabrics and threads are used o Andean Pact  Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela o Mercosur trading bloc  Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay ➢ Europe o European Union (EU) established in 1993 o 28 European counties act as a single internal market, while retaining political autonomy o Adoption of common currency, the Euro (except in the United Kingdom, which kept the pound) o Free trade among member nations; negotiating with other blocs o The UL formally voted in 2016 to leave the EU ➢ Asia o Countries produce high-quality goods requiring complex operations and detailed work ▪ China exports 1/3 of all textiles and apparel in the world o 1997: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ▪ 1992: Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA) o 1989: Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) – includes members bordering Pacific Ocean beyond Asia ➢ Africa and the Middle East o Turkey and the United Arab Emirates as major contributor to global apparel market o Little distribution in North African production levels despite recent political events o Qualified Industrial Zones  Jordan and Egypt provided with tariff-free entry of apparel products into the U.S. as long as a small part of production is provided by Israel o African Growth and Opportunity Act (ACGOA) multilateral agreement provides reductions in U.S. tariffs on textile and apparel products and other economic incentives for participating nations • Evaluating Sourcing Options ➢ Take stock of strategic position and evaluate how sourcing will affect it ➢ Each operation evaluated in effectiveness relative to core competencies and channels of distribution ➢ Political Stability and Economic Climate o Welcomes foreign investments o Fair labor and wage practices o Stable economy o Stabilizing influence on developing countries ➢ Infrastructure o Transportation and communication system o Resources for both labor and management o Quality-of-life considerations for company representatives ➢ Sourcing Costs o Not only lowest wages to consider o Identify partners for long-term; once established, protect investment o Hidden consisting concern o Ability of contractor to finance materials and reserve quotas ➢ Quality Standards o Skill of workforce (e.g., Asia vs. Latin America) o Caliber of management personnel o Accuracy of written communications and instructions from product developed (specs and samples) o Contractors’ capacity limits ➢ Production Vendor Capabilities o Three basic considerations 1. Throughput volume: amount of worn that can be completed in a given time 2. Throughput time: time required to produce a single unit from beginning to shipment 3. Work in process: number of garments in production at a given time o Each country’s workforce has its own expertise; sourcing partners from various locations around the world should be included in the sourcing mix ➢ Response Time o Timely delivery is key o Responsibility is a two-way street o Scheduling off-shore production is critical in planning merchandise and line calendars o Success of Zara and H&M has been due to “speed-to-market” strategies ➢ Channels of Communications o Accurate communication of: ▪ Standards and specifications ▪ Honest and complete quotes ▪ Status of lab dips ▪ Fabric and garment testing ▪ Prototype and product samples o Electronic information sharing has diminished physical distance in off-shore sourcing o Product lifecycle management (PLM) software manages the purchase of services, components, and finished products the company has designed or specified ➢ Working Conditions o Human rights guidelines are a serious consideration ▪ Standards related to a country’s development stage ❖ Mandatory schooling ❖ Minimum wage ❖ Hour laws ➢ Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production (WRAP)  non-profit organization that addresses labor practices, factory conditions, and environmental and customs compliance ➢ International Labor Organization (ILO)  United Nations agency that promotes social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights; audits factories for compliance to standards Chapter 14 • Profit and loss statement – simplified chart that provides skeleton outline of accounting categories to show status of the business ➢ Figures are used to evaluate the firm’s performance for past season; basis for preparing next season’s strategic financial plan ➢ Net sales  revenues taken in by a firm after all returns and other required adjustments have been subtracted from gross (total) revenue taken in during a specific time period ➢ Costs of Goods Sold  typically drives developer’s
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