CTD 231 Final: CTD 231 Final Exam Review

23 Pages
Unlock Document

Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
CTD 231

CTD 231 Final Exam Review Chapters 10-15 • Booked seam – Formed by layering cut edges on top of another. • Bound seams – made by encasing the raw edges of a seam with fabric strips. • Busted – seam is passed open on the inside of the garment. • Chain-stitch machine – Interlocks several threads pulled form cones and eliminates the need for frequent bobbin changes. • Enclosed seam – second most common seam type found within the SS class completed in 2 stages. • Facings – form of edge finish usually visible only on the inside of the garment. • Flat seams – join fabric piles by butting the raw edges together and securing them with 600-class cover stitch or zigzag stitch. • Hems – most common form of edge finish. • Lapped seams – formed by overlapping the seam allowances of two or more plies of fabric and sewing them together. With more than 100 variations, this is the largest seam class. • Lockstitch machine – The most common in stitch making and requires both a needle thread and a bobbin thread. • Safety stitches – contain 2 parallel rows of stitches that produce a very secure seam • Seam – stitching that holds together pieces of fabric • Seam allowance – Extension between the row of stitching and the edges of the fabric.’ • Stitch class – 3-digit number identified stitches. • Stitches - Configurations of interlacing thread executed in specific repeated units. • Superimposed seams – Most used seam class, formed by stacking plies of fabric on top of one another and sticking the together near the edge Chapter 10 • Methods of Pattern Development ➢ Flat Pattern – involves making styling changes to basic two-dimensional pattern o Sloper: five-piece pattern of previously developed and perfected basic body blocks o Select previously perfected final pattern or body similar to new style o First pattern version usually made up in fabric as first sample ➢ Pattern Drafting – begins from scratch for each garment style. Done by hand or digitstly nd o 1 ) body measurements are taken. 2 ) style lines and ease added, resulting in 2D paper patterns. o More time-consuming and costly; used by higher-priced, fashion-forward producers ➢ Draping – fabric draped or shaped around the body form to create a 3D garment prototype o Once fabric pattern is established, shaped fabric is flattened and its outline transferred to paper or digitalized to create 2D pattern blocks o Used for higher price points, especially with unique silhouettes ➢ Combination methods: ➢ New technologies: o Cutting edge – draping styles directly on computer; elusive due to nature of body movements and variations in textile properties o Body scan technology – enables the retrieval of 3D body measurements from consumer, applied digitally to produce customized product • Patternmaking Needs ➢ Design-Driven Product Development o Integrity of design is more important than the production efficiency o Willing to deal with more complex patterns and construction o Fabrics less standard, markers vary in efficiency, specialized sewing capabilities, smaller quantities o Offshore contractors o May make in-house for accuracy and fit ➢ Manufacturing-Driven Product Development o “Commoditize” style by lowering level of detail, uniqueness, or fit o Simplify construction techniques o Patterns made easy to sew to produce as many finished garments at lowest possible price in timely manner • Sourcing Patternmaking ➢ In-House Patternmaking – within the firm o Fit: experience with target market allows accommodations to meet customer expectations; market proximity allows for frequent fittings o Rely on computerized systems to provide greater accuracy, pattern storage, grading, and customized dress forms ➢ Patternmaking Services – viable options for those without the resources to hire their own patternmakers o Computerized system gives accuracy and efficiency without investment o Located regionally so corrections made quickly and efficiently o Maintain files of previous work ➢ Full-Package Vendors o Assume all responsibility for patternmaking, allowing developers to concentrate on their own core competencies o May be sacrificing consistency, fit, and construction details across the brand o Common in Asia, Central and South America and Caribbean is looking to compete • Standards – characteristics used as the basis of judgements made about products ➢ Established to reflect two major goals: o Enables a company to make a profit o Meet target customer’s expectations ➢ Framework for decision in development of product specifications ➢ Understand the firm’s specific standards for product sizing and fit, intrinsic quality standards that provide a baseline for consistency of product, and performance standards and for materials and finished product ➢ Decided within the firm  styling requirements, construction methods, and measurements for samples ➢ Imposed by outside agencies: o FTC  specific care, fiber identification labels o CPSC  flammability standards for children’s sleepwear • Specifications (specs) – graphic representations and written descriptions of styling, materials, dimensions, production procedures, and finishing instructions ➢ Open specs – information provided is generic and contains only very basic facts; allows flexibility for producer or contractor ➢ Closed specs – require exact materials or predetermine exact supplier; ensure consistency, but can increase end cost of product ➢ Tolerances – variation from identified criteria allowed during production; determine which products will be accepted for sale as first-quality products and which will be rejected ➢ Design specs – prototype specs, preliminary specs, or pre-adoption specs o Based on the line plan summary and initial prototype garments or specific styles ➢ Technical specs – all information needed for style to be readied for production o Occurs after a style is adopted and requires decisions as to how it will be produced o Focus on development or first production sample and sales samples ➢ Production specs/Engineering specs – for producing quantities of a product rather than individual prototype garments Chapter 11 • Sizing – assignment of individuals of particular body type into categories that reflect the body measurements of those in that size group ➢ Major source of sizing problems  diversity of U.S. population ➢ FTC, DOC attempted to standardize; but no mandatory standards in the U.S. • Women’s Sizing ➢ Sized for adult women; assigned numbers that reflect relationship of height, bust, waist, hip, and torso length measurements ➢ Sample size – represents body measurements from which full size range is developed ➢ Variations from one company to another can be extreme ➢ Manufacturing is contributing to the size confusion by vanity sizing (placing smaller size label on larger size garment) ➢ 7 Categories: misses, petites, talls, women’s plus, women’s petites, juniors, maternity • Men’s Wear ➢ More consistent sizing than women’s wear because men’s styles do not fluctuate as much as women’s ➢ Categories: o Suits, jackets, and coats o Pants o Men’s furnishings  shirts, underwear, sleepwear, ties and accessories o Young men’s • Children’s Sizing ➢ Originally based on age groups; consumer should now purchase sizes based on height and weight ➢ 5 Categories: Infants (0-8 months), toddlers (18-3 years), children’s (3-7 years), girls’ (7-11 years), boys’ (7-17 years) • Garment fit ➢ Grain – reflects the direction of threads in a fabric ➢ Set – reflects smooth fit with no unwanted wrinkles ➢ Line – way garment structural lines conform to the body ➢ Balance – right and left sides of body look even ➢ Ease – difference between body measurements of intended wearer and measurements of finished garment  varies depending on garment style, intended use, and fashion of the time ➢ Functional ease (wearing ease) – amount added to body measurements to compensate for body movements ➢ Design ease – reflects the amount added to combined body and functional ease measurements to make garment produce the look desired by the designer • Sizing Specifications ➢ Measurements must be clearly communicated on spec sheets for patternmaking and sampling o Key measurement points: collar circumference, bust or chest circumference, armhole, sleeve opening, sleeve length, and center-back length ➢ Tolerance – the difference between the allowable minimum or maximum on a process or finished garment. The type of product affects the amount of permitted tolerance ➢ Sampling process: styling and fit evaluated throughout the product development cycle o Sample garments produced and placed on dress forms to evaluate grain, set, line, and balance o To establish appropriate ease, sample garment are tried on by fit models (individuals selected to represent age and build of the target customer and conform to master size) ➢ Grading – process of scaling the master size of the garment to the range of sizes to be produced o Grade rules – amounts added or subtracted from each measurement as it changes from one size to the next ➢ Mass customization – application of mass production techniques to production of a single customer-configured garment o Body scanning and computerized alteration programs now make mass customization a possibility Chapter 12 • Quality standards ➢ Raw material standards – used to communicate with suppliers during the planning stages; help to define components used in production of finished garments ➢ Garment standards – diagnostic tools to measure the quality of product; defect guides (major and minor) • Quality specifications ➢ Quality specification evolve from company standards but are more detailed ➢ Specification libraries  accessibility to previously developed style, pattern, and measurement specification that can be recalled and reused ➢ Voluntary testing methods  on raw materials, sample garments (AATCC, ASTM) ➢ Sizing specifications o Measurements for every size o Finished garments outside tolerances are unacceptable • Labeling standards ➢ Mandatory labeling requirements o Fiber content – Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (TFPIA)  wool must be identified; anything over 5% total weight o Manufacturing – FTC identification number or brand name for each manufacturer o Country of Origin – critical issue when imported (tariffs, trade agreements) o Care Labeling Rule – permanent ➢ Voluntary labeling o Trademarks o Warranties and Certification ▪ Implied Warrant: products do what they are designed to do (e.g., raincoat repels water) ▪ Written: legally binding (shrinkage) ▪ Most voluntary labeling is a marketing tool o Union labels o Size designation  voluntary but universal; EU required European sizing and metric units • Safety regulations ➢ Flammability o Flammable Fabric Act  affects mostly infant and children’s sleepwear in sizes 0-6X and 7-14 o Requires use of fabric finishes to retard the spread of flames ➢ Drawstrings and small parts o Concerns about risks of children strangling or chocking; drawstrings o Rules apply to snaps and buttons; size, pull strength, and sharpness of trim items regulated ➢ Lead content o Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act in 208 tightened regulations on lead content in apparel products • Specifications for stitches, seams, and edge finishes ➢ Stitches – configuration of thread that forms stitching and seams ➢ Seams – stitching holding fabric pieces together ➢ Seam allowance – extension between the row of stitching and the edges of the fabric ➢ Class 1: Superimposed Seams o Most commonly used class for joining fabrics; two fabrics are placed on one another perfectly and then warn together ▪ Sewn edges of fabrics remain on the same side ▪ Mostly used in inside seam for shirts, pants, & children’s wear ➢ Class 2: Lapped Seams o Two or more fabric pieces are joined by overlapping each other; ends of fabric are sewn in opposite directions o Largest number of variations; many are very specialized o Very strong seam because at least two lines of stitching are used o Not common in clothing, but is used in sewing denim jackets, jeans, and overalls ➢ Class 3: Bound Seams o Edges of seam enclosed in fabric tape; produces a neat edge on a seam exposed to view or to wear o Sometimes used as decorative purpose; binder fabric may be different colors o Used for finishing necklines, sleeve hems, interior waistbands of pants, and seams on unlined jackets and coats o Ideal for easily raveled edges, bulky fabric ➢ Class 4: Flat Seams o Fabric edges do not overlap; edges of fabrics are placed precisely next to one another o Zigzag stitch may be used for joining; looks the same on both sides o Widely used in shapewear, undergarments, lingerie, swimwear, high-stretch athletic apparel, and thermal underwear ➢ Class 6: Edge Finishes o Used to protect the fabric edge from unraveling o Extensively used o Hems and facings (3 finishing types) ▪ 1) secure folded with stitching ▪ 2) stitching used at fabric edge or to cover raw edge ▪ Apply a binding seam allowance to finish raw edge • Production Processes ➢ Marker making: digital or paper layout of all pattern pieces in the cut order plan o Fallout, or leftover scraps of fabric, should be kept to a minimum ➢ Spreading and cutting of fabric o Hand-guided o Vibrating or ultrasonics o Electric straight knife o Electric rotary cutters o Die-cutting machines o Water-jet cutters o Computer-driven laser cutters ➢ Assembly methods o Progressive Bundle System – small parts completed first, then attached to major components, then final assembly of major parts o Unit Production System – overhead transporter moves developing parts from station to station and operator attaches newest component or performs the appropriate task on each garment o Modular Manufacturing Method – group operators into teams and each team focuses on completing each ➢ Wet processing – adds chemical or physical finish to assembled garment ➢ Finishing – trimming threads, final inspection, repairing defects, pressing, folding, and packaging ➢ Packaging – addition of hang tags and belts; garments are folded or hung on hangers; items packaged for shipping • Postproduction ➢ Tolerance – difference between allowable minimum and maximum on process or measurement o If finished garments falls between those specs = acceptable o If it goes under or beyond the tolerance = rejected ➢ Construction criteria o Finished garments inspected to determine if they comply with written specs o In-process inspection  on manufacturing floor where corrections can still be made o End inspection  after product is finished; more waste  too late to correct flaws o To ensure acceptable quality levels in finished garment, criteria must be established and communicated before production ➢ Dealing with flawed products o Garments inspected when they come off the production line or when they arrive at the firm’s distribution center to check compliance with written specs o If not found to be first quality (meet specs) ▪ Repaired to join first-quality products ▪ Sent back to contractor as unacceptable ▪ Disposed of as irregulars o Inspection Rate ▪ Small quantity, very high cost garment = all are inspected ▪ Very large order = random sample; if these garments meet specs, entire lot is passed; if flaws are found, may inspect all and separate flawed pieces; may simply reject the entire lot ▪ Even with precautions, human error may run about 6% ▪ Well-written spec packages boost potential of receiving first quality and reduce costs Chapter 13 • Sourcing – practice of procuring materials and production elsewhere • Sourcing mix – combination of resources utilized for production • Sourcing strategies ➢ Domestic developers concentrate more on: o Product development o Brand building and marketing o Outsourcing production ➢ Off-shore contractors becoming more vertical o Going beyond production o Offering services such as patternmaking and grading ➢ Evaluate core competencies o These will determine sourcing requirements o The experience levels of product development team affect sourcing needs ➢ Must be dynamic  network of sourcing partners provides balance of capacity, flexibility, value, and efficiency • Sourcing options ➢ Sourcing domestically o Domestically owned  more control, but difficult to stay price competitive o Domestic contracting – manufacturing facilities in the same country as product developer (but not owned by the developer) o Advantages  quick response time, ease of communication, quality inspection is less costly, no risks with quotas, etc. ➢ Sourcing globally o Predominant model for acquiring production capacity o Most nation have apparel production, with my offering unique qualifications (lower costs, expertise, or availability of materials and labor) o U.S. imports from almost all nations, unless there is a government embargo against them • Sourcing methods ➢ Direct sourcing o Cut, Make, and Trim (CMT) ▪ Utilize domestic or off-shore contractors for cutting, manufacturing, and finishing garments ▪ Product developer provides: ❖ Designs ❖ Patterns ❖ Fabrics ❖ Control over creative ▪ Eliminates product developers’ financial investment in factories and labor o Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM)/Package Contractors ▪ Focuses on the manufacturing process, but vendor takes responsibility of sourcing and financing materials in addition to CMT production services, finishing, and packaging ▪ Product developer retains responsibility for: ❖ Product design ❖ Written standards and specifications ▪ Used more frequently in recent years; balance between CMT and full-package suppliers o Full-Package Suppliers ▪ Contractors, trading companies, or agents ❖ Source materials ❖ Provides all other services ✓ Design ✓ Patternmaking ✓ CMT ✓ Quality assurance ✓ Packaging and shipping ▪ Major burden of financing on contractor ▪ Developer files letter of credit to pay creditor once goods are loaded on vessel ➢ Sourcing agents o May act as intermediaries that assemble a team of off-short vendors for production o May coordinate sourcing of: ▪ Fabrics ▪ Fabric and product testing ▪ Color matching ▪ Garment manufacturing and finishing o Valuable partners when a company enters a new product category in which it lacks experience or the volume of a production run is small ➢ Trade fairs – brings producers, manufacturers, and retailers together; open only to the trade o Firms present product lines to retail buyers at “market weeks” to generate sales of materials, technology, machinery, finished products, and services ➢ Off-Shore facilities o Increase control of production processes and scheduling o Risks and responsibilities  initial investment, political climate, finding employees, fixed asset o Opening plans in free trade zones, which allows for duty-free movement of equipment and suppliers, avoids some risks ➢ Joint ventures  shared ownership of facility with a business based in another country o Less risky o Off-shore owners know culture and legalities o Capacity guaranteed, more control o Start-up costs lower and time is less, local access is greater ➢ Licensing o Domestic licensing extends brand value without having to produce it o Major brands can use name recognition by granting rights to use their label to companies with complementary core competencies o Receive a royalty in return for the use of name or symbol o International licensing  alternative to exporting, established presence in global markets without having to manufacture off-shore o Contract with business partner gives right to use brand name o The licensee (producer) does all marketing and distribution • International Trade Policy ➢ Tariff – tax on imported goods assessed by the country of import  to raise the prices of imported foreign goods, so people choose to buy cheaper goods made domestically ➢ Quota – annual limit on the volume of a product (by category) shipped from exporting country to importing country  to raise the prices of imported goods, so people choose to buy cheaper goods made domestically ➢ Embargo – prohibition from importing products from exporting nations  to punish a country economically ➢ Countries began negotiating bilateral agreements (between two countries) to set quota levels ➢ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) signed to liberalize trade, create more global markets ➢ World Trade Organization (WTO) replaced the GATT as permanent organization o Agreement of Textiles and Clothing (ATC) enacted to eliminate all quotas over a 10-year period • U.S. Trade Policy ➢ Pursuing and has approved many bilateral trade agreements with individual nations o Encourages trade o Decreases or eliminates tariffs on products imported from foreign countries ➢ Companies must be aware of changes in trade agreements that may affect tariff structure for their products before finalizing sourcing contracts with firms in other nations • Regional trade strengths ➢ The Americas o North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) ▪ 1994: Eliminated tariffs and quotas over a 15-year period in Canada, U.S., and Mexico o Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) ▪ Freedom from tariffs on products imported from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Dominican Republic if a certain quality of U.S. fabrics and threads are used o Andean Pact  Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela o Mercosur trading bloc  Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay ➢ Europe o European Union (EU) established in 1993 o 28 European counties act as a single internal market, while retaining political autonomy o Adoption of common currency, the Euro (except in the United Kingdom, which kept the pound) o Free trade among member nations; negotiating with other blocs o The UL formally voted in 2016 to leave the EU ➢ Asia o Countries produce high-quality goods requiring complex operations and detailed work ▪ China exports 1/3 of all textiles and apparel in the world o 1997: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) ▪ 1992: Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA) o 1989: Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) – includes members bordering Pacific Ocean beyond Asia ➢ Africa and the Middle East o Turkey and the United Arab Emirates as major contributor to global apparel market o Little distribution in North African production levels despite recent political events o Qualified Industrial Zones  Jordan and Egypt provided with tariff-free entry of apparel products into the U.S. as long as a small part of production is provided by Israel o African Growth and Opportunity Act (ACGOA) multilateral agreement provides reductions in U.S. tariffs on textile and apparel products and other economic incentives for participating nations • Evaluating Sourcing Options ➢ Take stock of strategic position and evaluate how sourcing will affect it ➢ Each operation evaluated in effectiveness relative to core competencies and channels of distribution ➢ Political Stability and Economic Climate o Welcomes foreign investments o Fair labor and wage practices o Stable economy o Stabilizing influence on developing countries ➢ Infrastructure o Transportation and communication system o Resources for both labor and management o Quality-of-life considerations for company representatives ➢ Sourcing Costs o Not only lowest wages to consider o Identify partners for long-term; once established, protect investment o Hidden consisting concern o Ability of contractor to finance materials and reserve quotas ➢ Quality Standards o Skill of workforce (e.g., Asia vs. Latin America) o Caliber of management personnel o Accuracy of written communications and instructions from product developed (specs and samples) o Contractors’ capacity limits ➢ Production Vendor Capabilities o Three basic considerations 1. Throughput volume: amount of worn that can be completed in a given time 2. Throughput time: time required to produce a single unit from beginning to shipment 3. Work in process: number of garments in production at a given time o Each country’s workforce has its own expertise; sourcing partners from various locations around the world should be included in the sourcing mix ➢ Response Time o Timely delivery is key o Responsibility is a two-way street o Scheduling off-shore production is critical in planning merchandise and line calendars o Success of Zara and H&M has been due to “speed-to-market” strategies ➢ Channels of Communications o Accurate communication of: ▪ Standards and specifications ▪ Honest and complete quotes ▪ Status of lab dips ▪ Fabric and garment testing ▪ Prototype and product samples o Electronic information sharing has diminished physical distance in off-shore sourcing o Product lifecycle management (PLM) software manages the purchase of services, components, and finished products the company has designed or specified ➢ Working Conditions o Human rights guidelines are a serious consideration ▪ Standards related to a country’s development stage ❖ Mandatory schooling ❖ Minimum wage ❖ Hour laws ➢ Worldwide Responsible Apparel Production (WRAP)  non-profit organization that addresses labor practices, factory conditions, and environmental and customs compliance ➢ International Labor Organization (ILO)  United Nations agency that promotes social justice and internationally recognized human and labor rights; audits factories for compliance to standards Chapter 14 • Profit and loss statement – simplified chart that provides skeleton outline of accounting categories to show status of the business ➢ Figures are used to evaluate the firm’s performance for past season; basis for preparing next season’s strategic financial plan ➢ Net sales  revenues taken in by a firm after all returns and other required adjustments have been subtracted from gross (total) revenue taken in during a specific time period ➢ Costs of Goods Sold  typically drives developer’s
More Less

Related notes for CTD 231

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.