CTD 446 Midterm: CTD 446 Exam #2 Review
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Department
Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course
CTD 446
Professor
Dr.Thompson
Semester
Spring

Description
CTD 446 Exam #2 Review Chapter 5-9 Terms • Mesomorph – large boned, muscular body type • Endomorph – rounded with prominent abdomen body type • Ectomorph – linear and slender body type • Acclimatization – long term physiological adaptation ➢ Oxygen efficiency if living in a high altitude (Ethiopia, South America, Tibet, etc.) o Heart, lungs, and brain adjust o 20-30% reduction in the amount of oxygen the body absorbs o Greater lung capacity o Larger heart and chest ➢ Inuit  example. Highest animal protein and fat diet of any living population in the world, also alternates between vasodilatation and vasoconstriction ➢ Australian Aborigines  continuous vasoconstriction and warm fires, little clothing ➢ European and Asian populations  hands and feet vasodilated • Habituation – short term adjustments to temporary environmental stimulus ➢ Warm blooded  allows us to maintain internal body temperature o Sweat, shiver, expand/contract blood vessels, dress for extreme conditions • Acclimation – short term adjustment over a longer period of time (new time zone, tanning in response to sunlight, increased respiratory/heart rate for higher altitudes) Physical Diversity • Causes of differences and variation in physical characteristics of humans ➢ Heredity, environmental influences, age, development, some due to adapting to environmental conditions (skin and body proportions) and others are unknown (color/texture of hair) • Skin color varies by latitude ➢ Closer to the equator means darker skin for UV protection ➢ Lighter skin the further away from the equator o Theory: Vitamin D hypothesis, need lighter skin to absorb what is needed in areas with less sunlight intensity to less susceptible to frost bite damage • Body build/proportions ➢ Cold climates tend to have stockier people, less surface area per unit of mass, maintains heat easier ➢ Arid areas – more linear bodies, more surface area lose heat more rapidly Factors That Effect Sizing • Body development can be affected by the amount and type of food, environment, technology, nutrition and culture • Obesity ➢ Caused by poor eating habits and physical activity ➢ Humans change physically through the life cycle and have to be accommodated o Young, adolescents, reproduction (second puberty), and aging Clothing Zones 1. The minimum clothing zone, or the humid tropical and jungle type • Dress not for thermal protection but protection from sun, pathogenic organisms • Matter of fashion and customs • Loose absorbent garment, shaded head gear, and foot protection 2. The hot, dry clothing zone, or desert type • Protection against strong radiation of the sun • Differences in day/night temps • Coating with wind-resistant substances 3. The one-layer clothing zone, or subtropical or optimum comfort type • Climate does not restrict dress, only trunk needs thermal protection • Fashion provides a difference in details 4. The two-layer clothing zone, or the temperate cool winter type • Humid with occasional snow fall • Keeps off rain, insulates against heat loss • Pacific Northwest 5. The three-layer clothing zone, or the temperate cold winter type 6. The four-layer maximum clothing zone, or subarctic winter type • Winter Europe, Asia, and Africa • High insulative value when inactive • Dissipate body heat when active, if not heated, sweat and chill from unevaporated sweat • Ventilation is key. Lightweight, trapping dead air, easily opened, breathing materials 7. The activity balance zone, or the arctic winter type • Gore-Ex simulates animal skin garments of Inuit people • Architecture changed the need for clothing What Is Race? • Race – categories that are the result of humans attempt to identify biologically distinct groupings based upon physical appearance • There are always exceptions to race categories • Race is used to classify members of groups, to exclude, or to grant privileges • Biological anthropology is recognizing the physical variations within modern humans, emphasizing the geographical and clinal distributions • Replace the term race with ethnic group for ethnicity • Research finds that there is no scientific proof of the existence of racial categories based on physical appearance World Fashion Trickle Down Theory • Theory holds that 2 conflicting principles act as a motivating force for innovation • 2 classes  nobles and peasants • Peasant group (subordinate class) ➢ Principle of imitation, seeks to establish new status by adopting clothing of upper class • Superordinate (upper) social group ➢ Principle of differentiation, responds by adopting new fashion ➢ Old status markers are forsaken, abandoned to claims of subordinate class ➢ New status markers embraced by superordinate group • In this way, the upper class holds status markers peculiar to itself and preserves the status difference these markers are meant to signify • Self-perpetuating cycle of change, fashion diffusion in a social context, hierarchical • Helps predict fashion change (as soon as the low class tries to copy, the upper class differentiates dress. As soon as upper class differentiates, the lower classes appropriates dress) • Problems with the theory ➢ Elite fashion is replaced by mass fashion ➢ Media exposure allows for simultaneous adoption of new styles at all levels ➢ Does style differentiation distinguish social classes still? ➢ Rather, sex, age, and ethnicity divisions Trickle Across Theory • Contemporary Western society • Wide range of style made available in our society • Greater degree of individualized choice  advances in technology and distribution • Classes access to same information at the same time • Same styles at different price points at different stores • Knockoffs can be in stores before originals Cultural Authentication • A concept that was developed by Erekosima to aid in the description of the transfer of artifacts from one culture to another • Cultural authentication in dress is a process of assimilation through which a garment or an accessory external to a culture is adopted and changed • With this change, over time, the artifact becomes a vital, valued part of the adoption culture’s dress • Originally introduced in the late 1970s to investigate the Kalabari people of southeastern Nigeria • Four steps: 1. Item selected for use (selection) 2. Characterized by given different name (characterization (by naming)) 3. Incorporated into social life, becomes significant (incorporation) 4. Transformed by applied design, unique from original object (transformation) • Examples: baseball cap, patola, Spanish camisa shirts Small Scale Culture • First to emerge with evolution of human society, language, and physical type • Social life revolves around immediate survival needs of extended family • Live on in contemporary cultures; in pure forms referred to in the past • Continued because successful strategies for survival • Small, low-density populations (500-1000) • Some groups nomadic – foraging with seasonal cycle • Some settlements – gardening/herding • Simple tools, extensive knowledge of environment • Subsistence economy – enough food, shelter, and clothing for survival • Society – egalitarian, kin-based, age-grades (cohort) • Economy – subsistence, display, reciprocal exchange • Technology – foraging, gardening, herding • Polity – acephalus, bigman, descent groups • Ideology – animism, shamanism, ancestor worship • Division of labor – minimal based on age, gender, ability • Social status – based on age, ability, gender, position in kin groups • Groups – small, mobile, flexible • Shelter – temporary or semi-permanent • Large events to bring separated communities together to strengthen ties, recognize everyone in community on sight • Animism – worship of powers that animate aspects of the universe important to survival (celestial bodies, geological features, and ancestors) • Dress ➢ Population density – knew or with little effort could find out about anyone in geographical area ➢ Dress to communicate? – not much specific information about individual identity needed ➢ Migration for food, nomadic o Minimal possessions to carry including dress, body modifications – easy to always carry with you ➢ Dress accomplished by what was in the environment ➢ Settled groups – could accumulate more o Supplements – flat textiles, easy to move o Pre-shaped flowing robes – easy to pack o Elaborate dress – lie flat until constructed for display ➢ Today – might think of clothing specifically constructed for the traveler (lightweight, multifunctional, wrinkle-free, easy to store/carry) ➢ Technology – each family unit self-sufficient ➢ Detailed knowledge needed about environment and treatment of materials o Example: extracting nutrients from acorns in north America, Inuit cold weather gear • Technology economy ➢ Technology allowed some surplus for short periods of time ➢ Economy at times of surplus was given to displays of wealth and exchange ➢ Wealth – articles of food and dress ➢ Wear markers of participation ➢ Organize displays of dancing and dress • Society ➢ Residential groups organized loosely along kin relations ➢ Dress can indicate which kin the group belongs to ➢ Example: wearing certain fabrics or placement of color ➢ Scarification exampled from ga’anda women preparing for marriage, ethnic identity ➢ Allows kin groups to be separated by distance to identify each other • Climate ➢ Warm – dress not needed for protection as much; gender and age apparent ➢ Cold – more covering, needed to distinguish male/female, age ➢ Dress used to highlight aspects of role of age and gender and roles in social occasions • Status – reproductive capacity • Female product children – acquires enhanced rank and status (ascribed) • Certain tasks within the society shared by all women (generalist, cool, make cloth, etc) do not need to define specialty by clothing • Certain tasks within the society shared by all men (generalist, hunt, certain child care, etc) do not need to define specialty by clothing • Dress used for rites of passage – baby blessing, celebrating marriage, death rituals, passage to adult • Dress marks accumulation of new social roles or responsibilities due to biological growth, reproduction, aging • Changes in dress if any determined by changes of materials available • Polity and Dress ➢ Dress first form of inherited wealth and private property ➢ Organized in descent groups – common ancestor, distinguished by pattern or dress (Scottish tartans) • Religion and Dress ➢ Ancestor worship – burial of deceased with elaborate dress take into next life ➢ Today – western society, giving clothing of loved one away as remembrance ➢ Spiritual leaders – certain symbolic pieces such as an amulet to convey who they were and were associated with ➢ Certain dress associated with age or status changes – some permanent or temporary ➢ Dress also represents characteristics a person should take on as they move to the phase of their life ➢ Represent artistic depiction of ideological abstractions ➢ Certain dress is associated with age or status changes – some permanent or temporary ➢ Dress also represents characteristics a person should take on as they move to the next phase of their life ➢ Represents artistic depiction of ideological abstractions Mayan Ethnic Dress • 2 repercussions for persecuting Mayan dress ➢ El Salvador – 1932, 30,000 Mayans killed, stopped wearing traditional Mayan garb and disappearance of culture ➢ Guatemala – conquest led to the creation of revolt and retention of culture, wear costumers that mark as Maya and identify village of origin • Designs from Popol Vuh, sacred text • Gives animal and color symbolism to base designs • Females associated with weaving; produce cloth for family needs and temples • Style and technique • Incorporated western dress into their dress: males ➢ Straw hat with ribbons, long pants made of Maya fabric with overpant with symbol of age group and status ➢ Female dress more conservative: huipil – upper garment; corte – wraparound skirt; woven belt, headcovering • Each village distinct colored and patterned costume, 300 in Guatemala • Folklore Festival in Coban • Indian beauty queen – by law participants selected from villages must come and participate in traditional costume • Paradox – destroy dress but also celebrate it • Next to agriculture, textile production most important • Maya political activist Rigoberta Menchu 1992 nobel peace prize “what hurts Indians most is that our costumes are considered beautiful, but it’s as if the person wearing it doesn’t not exist” Naga Hills Tribes, between India and Burma • Dress is gender and age specific, and tied to status • Male – adolescent boys went headhunting which earned them the right to elaborate dress, males produce (headdress key element; necklace, armlets, anklets, brac
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