CTD 461 Midterm: CTD 461 Exam #2 Review

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Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
CTD 461

CTD 461 Exam #2 Notes Counterfeit: • Define: ➢ An imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins • What types of objects are counterfeited? ➢ Medicine, food, pens, handbags, clothing, etc. • Where are counterfeit goods found? ➢ Everywhere • Where are counterfeit goods created? ➢ Everywhere but particularly China • What is IPR? ➢ Intellectual Property Rights ➢ Protected under federal and state law; relates to intangible properties such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets • What is UL? ➢ Underwriters Laboratories • What is CBP? ➢ Customs Border Patrol ➢ The largest federal law enforcement agency charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting duties, and enforcing US regulations, including trade, customs, and immigration • What are some examples of counterfeit goods that have been found and their consequences? ➢ Counterfeit handbags, Levi jeans, and Rolex watches Analytical Tools • Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode ➢ Mean: the arithmetic average of a number of individual values ➢ Median: value for which there exists an equal number of higher and lower individual values ➢ Mode: most frequently observed individual values • Measures of Dispersion – Range, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation ➢ Measures of dispersion are also referred to as measures of scatter ➢ Range: indication of extreme values in a data set…highest to lowest values obtained ➢ Standard Deviation: a statistic which as a kind of average of individual deviations or differences from the mean. Describes the manner in which the data clusters around the mean ➢ Coefficient of Variation: a statistic which expresses the standard deviation as a percentage of the mean • Normal Distribution Curve ➢ Mean ➢ (+ or -) Standard Deviations how much of the population is included SPC – Statistical Process Control • Define: ➢ Identify and minimize unacceptable variations in a company’s products of processes • 80/20 Rule ➢ 80% of our problems are due to only 20% of the possible causes • Variation – What is it? Normal vs. Unacceptable ➢ Refers to characteristics or measurements that differ from specs or standards ➢ Normal Variations: assumes that no two items are completely identical ➢ Unacceptable Variation: falls outside the tolerances level for specs and standards • SPC helps us find what 3 things? ➢ Find areas that require action ➢ Fix factors that contribute to problems ➢ ID lax inspection • Histograms – What are they? What can we learn from them? How do make a histogram? What is K, R, and H? ➢ Histograms present a picture of how the process “stacks up” over time. They illustrate how many times a certain data value or range of data values occurred in a given time frame ➢ How much variation there is in the process, what the mode is, what the shape of the distribution is, and the relationship of the specs to the data ➢ K = class, R = range, h = class width (h = R/K) • How do you construct a histogram? ➢ Select the time frame (history) you are interested in and gather the data (at least 50 points) ➢ Select the number of classes (K) to be used on the histogram using the following guidelines: o No. of data points K o 50-100 5-15 o 101-250 16-20 o Over 250 21-25 ➢ Calculate the overall range (R), where R equals the maximum value and the minimum value ➢ Calculate the class width (width of bar on the histogram). The class width, h, is determined by h=R/K ➢ Round h to the nearest convenient number ➢ Select the class boundaries so that data points do not fall on the boundary between two classes ➢ Record the number of data points in each class ➢ Plot the histogram ➢ Label the histogram and include any other important information such as the time period covered Chapter 10 – Standards and Specs for Products • Define: ➢ Interactions among materials in the product and the relationship to construction, fit, and design greatly influence product performance and consumer satisfaction • Product tolerances ➢ Identify the acceptable range of variation from a specification ➢ When reviewing specs for products, tolerances are more likely to be listed as ranges of behavior than as minimums, as was the situation with materials • Materials in the Product ➢ Appropriate materials for a product is the most important factor. If the materials do not perform at the desired level no amount of product design modification will overcome the materials’ shortcomings ➢ Material evaluation ensures the company is able to product a product that meets requirements ➢ A prototype assists in understanding how the materials and process interact • Design ➢ The details, features, and characteristics of the finished product ➢ Design specs focus on the aesthetics and fashion characteristics of the product (how to treat components – overstitch, collar, etc.) ➢ Design standards address position and how company sees itself in fashion ➢ Quality of design is significant • Function ➢ Defines how well a product does what it is designed to do ➢ Function specs/standards address the ability of a product to perform its intended end use • Fit ➢ Describes how product dimensions relate to a 3-D form, body, or other objections on which the product may be used, worn, or displayed ➢ Helps to identify garment product balance: the point at which the product will ride on the form or drape from
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