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CTD 461
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Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design

CTD 461

Ms.Davis

Spring

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CTD 461 Exam #2 Notes
Counterfeit:
• Define:
➢ An imitation that is made usually with the intent to deceptively represent
its content or origins
• What types of objects are counterfeited?
➢ Medicine, food, pens, handbags, clothing, etc.
• Where are counterfeit goods found?
➢ Everywhere
• Where are counterfeit goods created?
➢ Everywhere but particularly China
• What is IPR?
➢ Intellectual Property Rights
➢ Protected under federal and state law; relates to intangible properties
such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets
• What is UL?
➢ Underwriters Laboratories
• What is CBP?
➢ Customs Border Patrol
➢ The largest federal law enforcement agency charged with regulating and
facilitating international trade, collecting duties, and enforcing US
regulations, including trade, customs, and immigration
• What are some examples of counterfeit goods that have been found and their
consequences?
➢ Counterfeit handbags, Levi jeans, and Rolex watches
Analytical Tools
• Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode
➢ Mean: the arithmetic average of a number of individual values
➢ Median: value for which there exists an equal number of higher and lower
individual values
➢ Mode: most frequently observed individual values
• Measures of Dispersion – Range, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation
➢ Measures of dispersion are also referred to as measures of scatter
➢ Range: indication of extreme values in a data set…highest to lowest
values obtained
➢ Standard Deviation: a statistic which as a kind of average of individual
deviations or differences from the mean. Describes the manner in which
the data clusters around the mean
➢ Coefficient of Variation: a statistic which expresses the standard deviation
as a percentage of the mean
• Normal Distribution Curve
➢ Mean
➢ (+ or -) Standard Deviations how much of the population is included SPC – Statistical Process Control
• Define:
➢ Identify and minimize unacceptable variations in a company’s products of
processes
• 80/20 Rule
➢ 80% of our problems are due to only 20% of the possible causes
• Variation – What is it? Normal vs. Unacceptable
➢ Refers to characteristics or measurements that differ from specs or
standards
➢ Normal Variations: assumes that no two items are completely identical
➢ Unacceptable Variation: falls outside the tolerances level for specs and
standards
• SPC helps us find what 3 things?
➢ Find areas that require action
➢ Fix factors that contribute to problems
➢ ID lax inspection
• Histograms – What are they? What can we learn from them? How do make a
histogram? What is K, R, and H?
➢ Histograms present a picture of how the process “stacks up” over time.
They illustrate how many times a certain data value or range of data
values occurred in a given time frame
➢ How much variation there is in the process, what the mode is, what the
shape of the distribution is, and the relationship of the specs to the data
➢ K = class, R = range, h = class width (h = R/K)
• How do you construct a histogram?
➢ Select the time frame (history) you are interested in and gather the data
(at least 50 points)
➢ Select the number of classes (K) to be used on the histogram using the
following guidelines:
o No. of data points K
o 50-100 5-15
o 101-250 16-20
o Over 250 21-25
➢ Calculate the overall range (R), where R equals the maximum value and the
minimum value
➢ Calculate the class width (width of bar on the histogram). The class width, h,
is determined by h=R/K
➢ Round h to the nearest convenient number
➢ Select the class boundaries so that data points do not fall on the boundary
between two classes
➢ Record the number of data points in each class
➢ Plot the histogram
➢ Label the histogram and include any other important information such as the
time period covered Chapter 10 – Standards and Specs for Products
• Define:
➢ Interactions among materials in the product and the relationship to
construction, fit, and design greatly influence product performance and
consumer satisfaction
• Product tolerances
➢ Identify the acceptable range of variation from a specification
➢ When reviewing specs for products, tolerances are more likely to be
listed as ranges of behavior than as minimums, as was the situation with
materials
• Materials in the Product
➢ Appropriate materials for a product is the most important factor. If the
materials do not perform at the desired level no amount of product
design modification will overcome the materials’ shortcomings
➢ Material evaluation ensures the company is able to product a product that
meets requirements
➢ A prototype assists in understanding how the materials and process
interact
• Design
➢ The details, features, and characteristics of the finished product
➢ Design specs focus on the aesthetics and fashion characteristics of the
product (how to treat components – overstitch, collar, etc.)
➢ Design standards address position and how company sees itself in
fashion
➢ Quality of design is significant
• Function
➢ Defines how well a product does what it is designed to do
➢ Function specs/standards address the ability of a product to perform its
intended end use
• Fit
➢ Describes how product dimensions relate to a 3-D form, body, or other
objections on which the product may be used, worn, or displayed
➢ Helps to identify garment product balance: the point at which the product
will ride on the form or drape from

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