CJ 306 Final: CJ 306 final study guide

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University of Alabama
Criminal Justice
CJ 306
Patrick L.Farris

Criminal Justice 306 Final Exam Study Guide 1. Situational Crime Prevention- reduction of opportunity for people to commit crime 2. Reentry Initiatives- 2004, President Bush Proposed a four year, $300 million prisoner reentry initiative to expand job training and placements service for paroles 3. Chemical Castration- Administration to sex offenders of a drug designed to reduce the sex drive 4. Probation- Probation is the most frequent sentence handed down by judges 5. Intermediate Sanctions- a punishment that falls between probation and prison (ex: electronic monitoring) 6. Parole- a period of early release for a prison inmate, determined by a parole board, and subject to certain conditions (ex: retaining a job) 7. Probation- a sentence during which the offender serves his or her time in the community under supervision (ex: refraining from drug use) 8. Determinate Sentencing Law (DSL)- Law, typically at state level, that provides for a sentence that the judge sets that can’t later be altered by parole boards 9. Home Confinement- a sentence requiring the offender to remain in his or her residence during specified period 10. Proactive arrests- targeting certain individuals and or crime types for arrests rather than waiting for a call for service prior to the arrest 11. Electronic monitoring- a sentence requiring the convicted offender to wear an electronic device capable of locating authorities 12. Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R)- a cognitive behavioral program designed to teach cognitive and other skills that are necessary for prosocial functioning in society 13. How is plea bargaining positive to prosecutors? – helps heavy case loads for prosecutors 14. How is it negative to defendants? – the defendant loses th their 6 amendment rights to a fair trial 15. Diversion- any number of informal or pragmatic methods of steering offenders out of the criminal justice system 16. Diffusion- reeducation in crime not only in area targeted by an intervention but also in surrounding areas 17. Prebiblical era- shaming punishment is traced back to this era 18. Drop charges- when a defender completes obligations it most likely will end in a drop charge after a diversion program 19. Traditional fines- most common punishment used today 20. Dade County Florida- in 1989 this was the first drug court 21. What are the keys to problem solving courts? – case outcomes and judicial monitoring 22. Violent crime- what most captures out attention and inspires the greatest fear in the minds of most Americans 23. Citizen contact patrol- method of policing typically chartered by door-to-door contacts with residents by police officers 24. What are the approaches to “softer” sides of prosecution? – manifesting itself as effort to bring victims back into the criminal process, nontraditional approach to crime not making use of criminal law, prosecutors defer criminal charges in an effort to minimize putting criminals back on streets with out any intervention, treatment or preventions 25. What are the 4 types of crime? – Violent crime, property crime, white-collar crime/ organized crime, and public-order crime 26. Due Process Perspective- a belief that they key aim of criminal justice policy is the protection of due process and people’s rights, even if crime control suffers 27. Shaming- Practice of penalizing offenders by appealing to the emotion of shame, such as requiring offenders to publicly apologize to their victims 28. Problem-solving courts- courts designed to deal with one specific, particularly troublesome offense type, such as drug abuse, domestic violence or gun violence (ex: drug courts) 29. Restorative Justice- process where by all the parties with a stake in a particular offense come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offense and its implications for the future 30. Is restorative justice effective? – it will all depend on reaches interests at the time 31. Selective incapacitation- sentencing strategy that seeks to identify dangerous offenders and imprison them for lengthy periods of time 32. Herbert L. Packer- the inventor of both operational (due process and crime control) perspectives 33. Property crimes- fall into categories of larceny, theft, and burglary 34. Public order crime- crimes that offend the social order, also called “vice crimes” (ex: prostitution, pornography, gambling, and substance abuse) 35. White-collar crimes- generally consists of crimes committed by people during the course of professional carriers 36. What are the 3 types of intermediate sanctions? – community registrants, programs such as structure and discipline, and hybrid varieties 37. Displacement- the spillover of movement of crime into a surrounding area not targeted by the intervention in question 38. Rational offender perspective- the view that criminal weigh the costs and benefits of violating the law 39. U.S. attorney- appointed federal prosecutor 40. District attorney- the chief, elected prosecutor at the local county level 41. Attorney general- the chief, law enforcement official/ prosecutor at the state of federal level 42. Net widening- the phenomenon of intermediate sanctions bring more and more people under some form of social control 43. Rehabilitation- planned intervention that is intended to change offenders for the better 44. Criminogenic needs- offender attributes that need to be changed in order to reduce the likelihood of offending 45. The drug treatment works best with? – prison based program before being released 46. Differed sentencing- like differed prosecution, but puts off sentencing instead of prosecution 47. Cross-designation- process by which local prosecutors temporarily acts as uncompensated special assistant U.S. attorneys 48. Project safe neighborhoods- promotes interagency (local- federal) coordination to find new creative ways to deal with gun violence 49. Richmond virginas project exile- 1994, approach to gun violence intended to send a message to criminals, “gun violence not tolerated” 50. What did the Richmond Virginia project exile rely on? – federal prosecution, law enforcement officials work together, and community out reach 51. Sentence enhancement- sentencing strategy that increases the length of an offender’s sentence due to certain crime specific circumstances (ex: hate crimes, crimes with gun presence) 52. Environmental criminology- focus on crime with particular attention to the built environment, to reduce frequency of criminal events through examination and manipulation of physical spaces 53. No-drop prosecutors- policy that requires prosecution in domestic violence if the evidence supports it, intended to ignore the victim’s preference of whether to prosecute 54. Strategic prosecution- shift that is taking place in prosecuting attorneys offices across the nation, represents a departure from the traditional role of the prosecutor 55. City attorney- chief legal advisor to citizen government officials and a prosecutor in cases involving city ordinance violations 56. Plea bargaining- agreement between prosecutor and defense attorney, defendant pleads guilty in exchange for reduced charges 57. What is the plea bargaining percentage? 90% of cases end in a plea bargain instead of trail 58. Random and preventative patrol- traditional policing favors random and presentative patrol, which police officers drive around in cars to detect and deter crime 59. Deterrence- traditional policing prizes the deterrence theory 60. General deterrence- others besides the sentenced offender, more of populations are discourages from committing crimes due to sentencing and incarceration practices 61. Specific deterrence- when a sentenced offender is discouraged from committing additional crimes due to his and or her capture and incarceration 62. What are to 4 goals of crime control? Deterrence- discouraging the crimes, Retribution- punishment on basis of severity of crime “deserves”, Incapacitation- remove criminals from society-jail, Rehabilitation- planned intervention to cha
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