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CTD 215 Final: Textiles Final Exam Notes

11 Pages

Clothing, Textiles and Interior Design
Course Code
CTD 215

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Textiles Final Exam Notes • Nonwoven: fabrics made directly from fibers without processing the fibers into yarns. ➢ Production: made from a variety of fiber types through a variety of processes. Production rates are very fast and the fabrics are inexpensive ➢ Uses: extensive use in medical textiles and interlining to stiffen certain areas of garments like collars and shirt cuffs. ➢ Problems: limited in apparel because the fabrics tend to have very poor draping ability. • Films: ➢ Vinyl: wash, stiffen when dry-cleaned, stiffens in cold weather ➢ Polyurethane: washable and dry-cleanable, soft in cold weather ➢ Plain film: dense, uniform, firm o Impermeable to air, water, soil and stain resistance, recovers well from deformation ➢ Expanded: spongier, softer, tiny air cells in film, not as strong or abrasion resistant as plain film • Web Stabilization: used to make nonwovens and is done by: ➢ Mechanical entanglement: needle punching, where nonwoven structures are formed by the mechanical entanglement of a fiber web by passing the web over a needle loom several times. o Tennis ball felt, bullet-proof vests o Spun-lacing is done by mechanically entangling the fiber web by high- pressure water jets. Patterns can be created. ➢ Heat and pressure: thermoplastic fibers are required. o Spun-bonding and melt-blowing is a continuous process starting from the polymer to the non-woven fabric. The polymer is extended through spinneret holes and laid down in a random fashion on a fast moving belt in a semi melted sate, causing it to fuse at the cross over point. o Hot calendaring: the fibrous web is passed through heated calendar, which causes slight fusion and so the fibers bond on cooling. ➢ Adhesives: a bonding agent is dusted or sprayed onto the web, and then cured and dried at a high temperature. o The disadvantage of a bonding agent is that it adds stiffness to the fabric and decreases moisture absorption. • Web Formation: The fibers in the web can be arranged in 3 ways: ➢ Oriented: indicated that the fibers lie primarily in the lengthwise direction in the fabric, fibers parallel, there is a grain to the web ➢ Crosslaid: indicated that the fibers are oriented lengthwise and then cross-wise in successive layers in the web ➢ Random: indicated that the fibers lie in all directions within the web, strength is uniform in all directions ➢ Webs of staple fibers may be made by wet or dry methods o In wet laying, the staple fibers are suspended in water, the water is removed and the staple fibers are deposited randomly o In dry laying, air circulation causes deposition of the staple fibers to form a web. Air laying fiber is in different directions ➢ Directly from extrusion, o Spun-bonded-webs are made immediately after fibers are extruded from spinnerets in semi melted state at cross points o Spun lace: webs are spun bond but water jets are added to interlace and to break filaments into short fibers o Melt blown: extrude polymer filament into heated air, break fiber into short pieces, which are caught into a web • Fiberfill: fiber staple made especially for filler ➢ Batting: new fiber ➢ Fiber density: important characteristic o Mass per unit volume o Used to match with end-use for resiliency and weight ➢ Resiliency: maintain loft, more air space ➢ Too much bulk restricts movement • Multicomponent Fabrics: fabrics that combine several primary and/or secondary textile structures, are last one of which is recognized textile structure, into a single structure. ➢ Carpets: uncut or cut tufted pile ➢ Cut loops: yarns held in place by: o Untwisting the yarn, shrinkage of ground fabric, coating the back of ground fabric ➢ Tuft density: number of tufts per square inch ➢ Inexpensive way of making pile fabric – tufting ➢ Quilts: generally 3 components, including face and backing fabric and inner batt of fiber or filling. Usually sewn together with thread, but can also be thermally welded together by ultrasonic stitching. ➢ If joined by adhesive its called laminate. If joined by foam its called bonded. ➢ Flocked fabrics: o Effect is similar to fabrics with pile or nap o Made by gluing short fibers on surface of fabric with either covering the entire surface or in a specific pattern o Fibers distributed over surface of fabric mechanically or through electrostatic process. o Glued on flocking may come off in dry cleaning, may not wear as woven pile. • Stitch-bonded Fabrics: also called stitch through, stitch knitted, or mali. Faster than knitting or weaving ➢ Made by laying fill direction yarns only and stitching through these with a chain stitch ➢ The pattern of chain knit stitches that hold the yarns together are easy to identify ➢ This fabric is often used in upholstery • Hybrid Fabrics: ****** ➢ Coated fabrics: fabric coated with thin polymer film to provide protection or simulate leather. Vinyl coated fabrics, for example, have a leather-like appearance o Stronger than unsupported films o Processes used to produce coated fabrics ▪ Lamination, calendaring, coating with polymer, impermeable to water and liquid water – can be modified ➢ Poromerics: very thin film and microporous, membrane, allows passage of water vapor (permeable) but not liquid water. o Imitation leather products that simulate the power structure of leather. Made of a web of polyurethane extruded onto a supportive fabric structure. o Ultrasuede is a well known brand name for this type of fabric with a suede like finish o Waterproof, windproof, breathable • Fabric preparation finishes ➢ Desizing: warp size is removed with enzymes after weaving ➢ Singeing: burns fiber ends from the fabric to produce a smooth surface ➢ Shearing: cutting fiber ends to achieve a level pile, surface nap, or sculpted effect ➢ Cleaning-Scouring: soil, excess chemicals, or fiber coatings such as natural waxes or oils are removed ➢ Biopolishing: cellulose enzyme treatment for cotton and other cellulosic fabrics to produce a softer hand and fewer problems with linting and surface fuzz ➢ Bleaching: eliminates fabric stains or yellowing ➢ Mercerizing: sodium hydroxide is used to increase cotton’s absorbency, luster, and strength. ➢ Tentering: the fabric is stretched out to full width and is often combined with other finishing steps like heat setting. If poorly done, it contributes to bow and skew. ➢ Carbonizing: a treatment for wool in which acid removes cellulosic matter and prepares the fiber for dyeing ➢ Fulling: a finish of woven or knitted wool fabrics that produces a tighter, more compact fabric by a carefully controlled felting process ➢ Degumming: for silk textiles the silk gum is removed • The differences between dyes and pigments ➢ Dye: an organic compound with high color strength capable of forming a bond of some type with fibers. o Colorants which enter the textile fiber at the molecular level o Typically can be dissolved or dispersed in water o Textiles may be dyed at any stage of product production ➢ Pigment: a colorant that is insoluble and must be attached to the fiber with the use of a binding agent o Large agglomerates of colorant molecules, which are far too large to diffuse into the fiber and hence need to be physically attached to the fabric surface o Insoluble color particles that are held on the surface of the fabric o Attached to the surface of textile substrates with glues or binders, and so may be used without regard to fiber type o Usually done to textiles in fabric form • Auxiliaries: materials used along with colorants to enhance the application of the colorants to the textile produced • Types of dyeing ➢ Dope dye, solution dye, producer dye: describes the addition of colored pigments to polymer solutions prior to fiber extrusion o For manufactured fibers only o Dyes or pigments added to the polymer or solution prior to spinning o Fibers emerge from spinneret already colored o Commonly used for olefin and acetate ➢ Gel dyeing: add dye to wet spun fiber while in the gel state ➢ Fiber dyeing: the addition of color, generally as dyes, to textiles while they are in fiber form. It also refers to adding pigment to fiber solutions before fibers are extruded. o Stock dyeing: refers to a fiber-dyeing process in which loose fibers are colored o For any staple fiber o Dyes are applied to fiber before it is spun o Blending of different colored fibers gives heather yarns o Wool fiber dyeing is also called top dyeing o Fiber dyed wool needed for production of tweed fabrics ➢ Yarn dyeing: a process of adding color, usually a dye, to yarns. o Used for any fiber type o Dyes are applied to packages of yarns wound onto perforated dobbins in package dyeing machines, or skins of yarn, or entire beams of yarn are dyed o Beam dyed yarn is used in denim manufacturing o Dyed yarns are necessary for the production of any woven or knit striped or plaid fabrics (unless the pattern is printed on) o Space dyed yarns: different colors along the length, made by squirting dye onto packages ➢ Piece dying: describes adding color to a textile when it is in fabric form o For ay fiber type o Dyes are applied to fabrics after they have been woven or knit o Piece dyeing may be done by either batch (usually up to 10,000 yards) or continuous processes (very large yardages) o A very economical method of dyeing ➢ Garment dyeing: the process of adding color to the textile after it has been cut and sewn into the final product o Best for cellulosic fibers or nylon o Dyes are applied to garments after they are manufactured o Typically done for hosiery and panty hose, also becoming popular for casual apparel for “just in time” buying • Cellulosic fibers: cotton, flax, rayon, lyocell, etc. may be dyed with a variety of dye types, depending upon the results desired ➢ Vat dyes: a class of solubility-cycle dyes used primarily with cotton and some polyester o Inexpensive, fairly bright shades, some fastness problems. Indigo is a vat dye ➢ Sulfur dyes: a class of solubility-cycle dyes used primarily with cotton o Inexpensive, fairly dull shades. Used in work cloths, some dyes tender fabric ➢ Direct dyes: a class of dye used primarily with cellulosics o Fairly expensive, bright clear shades, poor wash-fastness generally ➢ Reactives: a dye class used primarily with natural fibers and rayon o Expensive, bright clear shades, best wash-fastness • Wool, silk, and nylon are most commonly dyed with members of the acid dye family. Cationic dyes are used with some successes for wool and silk, but light fastness is not as good as that of acid dyes in wool. ➢ Acid dyes: a dye class used primarily with natural protein fibers and nylon ➢ Acid dyes give bright, clear shades with good leveling and fairly good wash-fastness and light-fastness, but are also the hardest to level ➢ Neutral premetallized dyes give the dullest shades of the three with best overall fastness, but are also the hardest to level. Used for men’s worsted suit fabrics because of high light fastness • Polyester is the most dyed with disperse dyes, although a small quantity is dyeable with cationic dyes. Blends of regular polyester, cationic dyeable polyester and rayon can give three different colors in the same dyebath, producing heather effects fabrics ➢ Cationic dyes: a dye class used primarily with acrylic fibers ➢ Cationic dyes give the brightest, clearest shades of any dye class. Poor fastness limits their use with many fiber types, but overall fastness with acrylic is excellent. Some fluorescent (day glow) shades are available •
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