[HD 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (59 pages long)

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HD 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Human Development Chapter 2
August 30, 2016
FROM CONCEPTION TO BIRTH
The Beginning of Life
First, the universal
all living things = cells that promote growth and sustain life according to
instructions in their molecules of DNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
molecule that containing the chemical instructions for cells to make proteins
promotes growth and sustains life
Chromosomes
molecules of DNA
consists of 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs
Zygote
two gametes (sperm and ova) combine and produce a new individual
23 chromosomes from each parent
Gametes
reproductive cells (sperm and ova)
each gamete consists of 23 chromosomes
How Proteins Are Made
cell nucleus chromosome DNA molecule (TAGC)
Variations Among People
Triplet Variations
variation occur because DNA code contains 3 billion pairs organized into triplets
Genetic Variations and Similarities
Genes are passed down from generation to generation
Genotype
an organism’s genetic inheritance or genetic potential
unique for each organism
Phenotype
observable characteristics of an organism
Overall
many genes are identical for every human being
some genes vary slightly in their codes from one person to another
Allele
variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular
trait can occur
effects of variations vary greatly from causing life threatening conditions to
having no detectable effect at all
ex: hair color, height, eye color
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Uncertain Sex
“ambiguous genitals” make child’s sex not abundantly clear
analysis of chromosomes is needed o make sure there are 46 chromosomes and
see if the 23rd is male or female
The Human Genome
Genetic Diversity
distinguishes each person
allows the human species to adapt to pressures of the environment
Genome
involves the full set of genes that are instructions to make an individual member
of a certain species
Male and Female
Humans possess 46 chromosomes
44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes
females: XX
males: XY
sex of offspring depends on whether the father’s Y sperm or X sperm fertilizes the
ovum
Twins
monozygotic (identical)
originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development
incomplete split results in conjoined twins
same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to
environmental influences
dizygotic (fraternal)
result from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm
dizygotic twins have half their genes in common and occur twice as often
as monozygotic twins
incidence is genetic and varies by ethnicity and age
Genetic Interactions
Almost every trait is:
polygenic (affected by many genes)
multifactorial (influenced by many factors)
Regulator Genes:
direct the interactions of other genes, controlling their genetic expression,
duplication, and transcription
are responsible for differences between species
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