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COM 225 Midterm: COM225 review sheet

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COM 225
Rintamaki Lance

Lecture 1: Active Listening Skills 1) Nonverbal attention a) Nonverbal cues that signal you’re attentive i) Eye contact ii) Facial expression iii) Head nodding iv) Squared body v) Uncrossed limbs vi) Lean in 2) Attending a) Definition: Mentally focusing your attention on the content and meaning supplied by the other person. b) Problem: pseudo-listening – pretend to be listening 3) Perception checking a) Definition: Finding out if interpretations and perceptions are valid and accurate. b) Encouragement to speaker 4) Probing a) Definition: Questioning in a supportive way that requests more information, when necessary. 5) Being quiet a) Notice that while you may ask a few questions and confirm your interpretations of things, most of the time you’re going to be quiet. This is a good thing! b) When active listening, you want to give the other person plenty of time to think as well as to talk. This means you may sometimes remain quiet when they pause, allowing them to gather their thoughts before continuing. 6) Exercise: listener observe and speaker Lecture 2: self-disclosure and leadership 1) Connecting with others associated with liking a) Attraction is related to positive disclosure b) Relational satisfaction and disclosure have a curvilinear relationship; that is, relational satisfaction is greatest at moderate levels of disclosure c) Intimacy i) People think it is appropriate to disclose to people they like, but they tend to overestimate how much they do so ii) We remember negative disclosures more than positive disclosures and like people less who reveal lots of negative disclosures 2) Importance of disclosure for workplace, morale, performance a) Uniplex relationships – all you do is talk about one topic (e.g., if at work, all you do is talk about work). b) Multiplex relationships – you talk about a range of topics, such as personal stuff as well as professional stuff i) GOOD for the workplace. They lead to greater job satisfaction, productivity, efficiency, as well as lower turn-over rates. Lecture 3: Nonverbal communication 1) Definition of nonverbal: All messages not expressed by words, themselves a) Nonverbal involves messages i) Messages are symbolic (stand for something other than themselves) ii) Difference between NV communication and NV behavior b) All communication not expressed by words i) Indicative of the complexity of NV 2) Characteristics a) Guided by rules i) We’re so indoctrinated in these rules; we usually can’t even tell you what they are ii) But, we know them when we see someone break them b) Rules guided by culture i) The way things are done here may be quite different elsewhere ii) “I’ve got your nose” 3) Nonverbal codes a) Kinesics: Visible body movements, including facial expressions, eye contact, gestures, and body postures i) Cultural: eye contact exercise ii) Leadership (1) Eye Contact (a) People in power look at you when speaking, away when listening (b) People lacking power look when listening, away when speaking (2) Gesticulation (a) People in power move their body purposefully, with intention (3) Facial Mobility b) Vocalics: Vocal characteristics, such as loudness, pitch, speech rate, and tone. i) Examples (1) Paralanguage (vocal intonation, just as joking or being serious when conveying a message) (2) Silence (to convey anger; convey power) ii) Leadership (1) Vocal projection (do it!) (2) Keep your rate measured (not too fast, not too slow) c) Haptics: Duration, placement, and strength of touch. i) Cultural & Contextual Examples: (1) Costa Rica, shaking hands, and kissing (2) Gender and Covert Affection (a) Especially how men express liking and inclusion with other men (b) Varies based on cultural context ii) Leadership (1) People with power touch their subordinates far more often than the other way around (hardy see a worker tap on a boss’s shoulder) (2) Handshakes (a) Firm (b) Long (holding hands a bit longer) d) Proxemics: Use of personal space. A technique to overpower someone i) Cultural & Contextual Examples: USA vs middle eastern cultures (1) Breath on face (2) US military personnel in Iraq ii) Leadership: Imposition and space (1) The Johnson Treatment (2) He used his imposing physical size and intimidating personality to emphasize his point e) Chronemics: Use of time. i)
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