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ES 300 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Spinal Cord Injury, Spinal Cord Compression, Cervical Dislocation

15 pages75 viewsFall 2013

Exercise Science
Course Code
ES 300
Study Guide

of 15
Elbow Pathology and Managmnet
Elbow Structure
oMuscular- moderate
oLigament- moderate
oSkeletal- weak
The elbow will take the excess stress from the shoulder and wrist joints.
Olecranon Bursitis
oEtiology: direct blow
oSigns and Symptoms: Pain, swelling, point tenderness Swelling spontaneously without usual
Acute – Compression
Chronic – Superficial Therapy
Aspiration may be necessary
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Sprain
oEtiology- Valgus force from repetitive trauma
oPain along medial aspect: tenderness over MCL. Associated paresthesia
oManagement: Surgical intervention (Tommy John procedure)
oulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow is critical for valgus
stability of the elbow and is the primary elbow stabilizer.
oElbow Injuries in young athletes are generally chronic from repetitive overhead activities.
High velocity pitcher= more injury ULC
oOf 9 pitchers who had elbow injuries, 4 had an elbow muscle strain and/or joint inflammation,
and 5 had an ulnar collateral ligament sprain or tear. Surgery was required for 3 of the 5
Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
oEtiology: Repetitive Microtrauma
oDecreased ROM; pain w/MMT wrist extension
oManagement: Use of counter force / neoprene sleeve, ART Tennis Elbow
Medial Epicondylitis “golfers elbow
oEtiology: Forceful flexion of wrist & valgus torque of elbow
oPain produced with forceful flexion or extension
oManagement: Curvilinear brace below elbow- gripless training
Little League Elbow
oEtiology: Repetitive throwing (not type of pitch). Disorders of growth
oSlow onset; flexion contracture, tight anterior joint capsule & weak triceps
oLocking or catching sensation
oThrowing with good technique to prevent recurrence
Increase intensity and increase length of the season= little league elbow
othrowing motion, valgus stress is placed on the elbow.
otension on the medial structures (ie, medial epicondyle, medial epicondylar apophysis, medial
collateral ligament complex)
ocompression of the lateral structures (ie, radial head, capitellum).
Elbow Dislocation:
oFall on an outstretched hand with elbow extended or severe twist while flexed
oDisplaced backward, forward, or laterally
oRadial head fracture involved
oManagement: REFER.
Elbow Fracture:
oFall on flexed / outstretched or direct blow
oMay not result in visual deformity
oSurgery to stabilize but Stable fractures do not require surgery
The Forearm, Wrist, Hand, & Finger
Blood and Nerve Supply
oThree major nerves: Radial, Median, Ulnar
oUlnar and Radial arteries- Branches of the Brachial Artery
Forearm Fracture
oCommon in youth
oVolkman’s Contracture: Permanent fx
oAudible pop or crack
oEdema, ecchymosis w/ possible crepitus
Colles Fracture
oOut for 4-10 weeks
oLower end of the radius
oDamage to median nerve
oLower epiphyseal separation in children
Wrist Sprains
ohyperextended, violent flexion or torsion
oMay disrupt blood supply
Scaphoid Fracture
oFOOSH, compressing scaphoid
oOften fails to heal
oPresents like wrist sprain
oPain with radial flexion
oMust be splinted and referred
Mallet Finger
oBaseball or Basketball finger
oBlow to tip of finger
oAvulsing extensor tendon
oPain at DIP
Jersey Finger
oRupture of FDP tendon from insertion
oRing finger when athlete tries to grab a jersey
oDIP cannot be flexed, remains extended

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