[ES 380] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (13 pages long!)

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ES 380
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 13 Overview:
Environmental conditions at altitude
Physiological responses to acute altitude exposure
Exercise and sport performance at altitude
Acclimation: chronic exposure to altitude
Altitude: optimizing training and performance
Health risks of acute exposure to altitude
Introduction to Exercise at Altitude:
Barometric pressure (Pb) ~760 mmHg at sea level
Partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)
Portion of Pb exerted by oxygen
0.2093 x Pb ~159 mmHg at sea level
Reduced PO2 at altitude limits exercise performance
Hypobaria
Reduced Pb seen at altitude
Results in hypoxia, hypoxemia
Environmental Conditions at Altitude:
Sea level (<500 m): no effects
Low altitude (500-2,000 m)
No effects on well-being
Performance may be , restored by acclimation
Moderate altitude (2,000-3,000 m)
Effects on well-being in unacclimated people
Performance and aerobic capacity
Performance may or may not be restored by acclimation
High altitude (3,000-5,500 m)
Acute mountain sickness
Performance , not restored by acclimation
Extreme high altitude (>5,500 m)
Severe hypoxic effects
Highest settlements: 5,200 to 5,800 m
For our purposes, altitude = >1,500 m
Few (if any) physiological effects <1,500 m
Pb at sea level exerted by a 24 mile tall air column
Sea level Pb: 760 mmHg
Mt. Everest Pb: 250 mmHg
Pb varies, air composition does not
20.93% O2, 0.03% CO2, 79.04% N2
PO2 always = 20.93% of Pb
159 mmHg at sea level, 52 mmHg on Mt. Everest
Air PO2 affects PO2 in lungs, blood, tissues
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Air temperature at altitude
Temperature decreases 1 °C per 150 m ascent
Contributes to risk of cold-related disorders
Humidity at altitude
Cold air holds very little water
Air at altitude very cold and very dry
Dry air quick dehydration via skin and lungs
Solar radiation at high altitude
UV rays travel through less atmosphere
Water normally absorbs sun radiation, but low water vapor at altitude can’t
Snow reflects/amplifies solar radiation
Physiological Responses to Acute Altitude Exposure
Pulmonary ventilation immediately
At rest and submaximal exercise (but not maximal exercise)
PO2 stimulates chemoreceptors in aortic arch, carotids
Tidal volume for several hours, days
Ventilation at altitude = hyperventilation
Alveolar PCO2 CO2 gradient, loss
Blowing off CO2 = respiratory alkalosis
Respiratory alkalosis = high blood pH
Oxyhemoglobin curve shifts left
Increases affinity for O2
Prevents further hypoxia-driven hyperventilation
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