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ES 330 Midterm: Energy Expenditure During Walking

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University at Buffalo
Exercise Science
ES 330
Lou Gosselin

1 Energy Expenditure During Walking & Running 1. What are the three parts of the treadmill equation for either walking or running? a. Horizontal b. Vertical c. Rest 2. In what units is the VO ex2ressed when using these equations? a. ml/kg/min 3. What is the speed range for both the walking and running equation? a. Walking – 1.9 to 3.7 mph (50-100 m/min) b. Running – greater than 5 mph (>134 m/min) 4. What are the 4 points of caution regarding the use of these equations? a. Although the measured VO at a2given work rate is highly reproducible in a given subject, there is a large inter-subject variability b. The equations are good only for steady-state exercise c. The predictive value is affected by things that change mechanical efficiency d. Use of the equations assumes ergometers are calibrated and used appropriately 5. Given treadmill data, can you use any of these equations to calculate energy expenditure as part of an exercise prescription? a. Yes**** would you need the age and weight? 6. Given a desired caloric energy expenditure, can you use any of these equations to determine treadmill speed, grade, or exercise duration? a. Yes 7. Why is estimating the O cost2of walking and running useful? a. To predict VO 2maxfrom submaximal exercise test data b. To determine exercise duration (e.g. weight loss program) c. To determine exercise intensity to achieve a given energy expenditure 8. Know: a. 1 liter of O2= 5 kcal b. 3,500 kcal = 1 lb. fat c. METS = (VO in ml/kg/min)/3.5 2 9. What is the relationship between speed and VO cost? 2 a. Linear 10. How can you estimate VO 2max? a. With HR maxand grade or METS Exercise for the Elderly 1. What are the HHS physical activity recommendations for adults? a. Stress health over fitness by: a.i. Avoiding inactivity a.ii. Stressing aerobic activity a.ii.1. 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity exercise (40-60% of VO peak) 2 a.ii.2. 75 minutes/week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity a.ii.3. Equivalent combination of the two a.iii. For even greater health benefits: a.iii.1. 300 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity a.iii.2. 150 minutes/week of vigorous aerobic activity a.iii.3. Get 10,000 steps/day 2. What are the major advantages/disadvantages of bike and TM testing, particularly as it relates to the elderly? 2 a. Treadmill (NOTE: there are different protocols for different populations) a.i. Advantages: a.i.1. Walking and running are natural activities a.i.2. Treadmills set the pace for the subject a.i.3. Treadmills provide the greatest load on the cardiorespiratory system a.i.4. The test is easy to duplicate a.i.5. You can perform either a maximal or submaximal test a.ii. Disadvantages: a.ii.1. They are expensive a.ii.2. Some measurements are difficult to obtain a.ii.3. You can only test on subject at a time a.ii.4. Potential for EKG artifact a.ii.5. Need to make sure the treadmill is calibrated a.ii.6. Balance, musculi-skeletal issues b. Bike b.i. Advantages: b.i.1. Portable b.i.2. Moderately priced b.i.3. Measurements can be easily made b.i.4. An alternative for patients who have orthopedic (e.g. foot) problems b.ii. Disadvantages: b.ii.1. Work rate is subject dependent b.ii.2. Smaller muscle mass is involved b.ii.3. Cycling is not a normal activity for most people b.ii.4. Can only test one subject at a time b.ii.5. Localized muscular fatigue b.ii.6. Difficult to maintain cadence 3. Describe the chair stand test and how you would interpret the data. a. Purpose – to test leg strength and endurance b. Sit in the middle of the chair c. Place hands on opposite shoulder crossed at wrrists d. Keep your feet flat on the floor e. Keep back straight and arms against chest f. On “go”, rise to a full standing position and then sit back down g. Repeat for 20 seconds g.i. If the patient must use his/her arms to stand, stop the test. Record a “0” for the number and score. g.ii. Count the number of times the patient comes to a full standing position in 30 seconds g.iii. If the patient is over halfway to a standing position when 30 seconds have elapsed, count it as a stand g.iv. Below average scores: Age Men Women 60-64 < 14 <12 65-69 <12 <11 70-74 <12 <10 75-79 <11 <10 80-84 <10 <9 85-89 <8 <8 90-94 <7 <4 3 4. What workload increment would you use for a frail elderly individual? a. .5-1 MET / 3 minutes 5. What are the blood pressure criteria for terminating an exercise test? a. SBP > 250 mmHg or b. DBP > 150 mmHg 6. What are the ACSM intensity, frequency, duration, mode and progression exercise guidelines for improving fitness? a. Intensity: a.i. Percent of max HR a.i.1. 64-95% of max HR a.ii. Percent of VO2 max or HRR: a.ii.1. 40-85% of max a.iii. Heart Rate Reserve method (Karvonen Equation) a.iii.1. Target HR = (HRR x intensity) + HR rest a.iii.1.a. HRR = HR max- HRrest a.iv. Rating of perceived exertion a.iv.1. Physiological adaptation – 12-16 a.iv.1.a. Palpating pulse a.iv.1.b. Adjunct in prescribing intensity (e.g. non-steady state activities) a.iv.1.c. Beta-blockers (if on beta blocker, heart rate response is suppressed) b. Duration: b.i. Total caloric expenditure – duration and intensity b.ii. Client goals and time constraints b.ii.1. E.g. weight loss (caloric expenditure) vs. competition (distance or time) b.iii. Desired caloric energy expenditure -150 -400 kcal b.iv. ACSM recommendation: 1000-2000 kcal/week b.v. ACSM recommendation: 20-60 minutes/day c. Frequency: Functional Frequency Capacity < 3.0 METS Multiple (5) short, daily sessions (4-6 min/session) 3-5 METS 1-2 sessions/day (total of twenty minutes) > 5 METS 3-5 days/week (based on CR fitness)  Higher intensity, larger work out and more times per week all increase risk of orthopedic problems (730 min/session) d. Mode: d.i. Considerations: d.i.1. Functional capacity and health issues d.i.2. Interests 4 d.i.3. Time availability d.i.4. Equipment/facilities d.i.5. Personal goals/objectives d.ii. Large muscle mass (goal to recruit large muscle mass) e. Progression: e.i. Considerations: e.i.1. Functional capacity
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