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Exercise Science
ES 330

ES 330 Lifespan Physiology (65+ older) 41.4 million in 2011. By 2030, more than 73 million people will be over the age of 65 One in every 8 Americans is older •  Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADLs) •  Instrumental Actives of Daily Living (IADLs) Exercise science for older adult is no different from athletes. •  Baseline testing •  Define the goals •  Map out the progression •  Follow up ICF= International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, known more commonly as ICF, provides a standard language and framework for the description of health and health- related states -stresses on health and functioning rather than disability - planning and policy tool for decision makers World Health Organization 1980 multipurpose classification for wide range of uses in different sectors. Body, individual and society perspectives. And the environment Level of capacity: what a person with a health condition can do in a standard environment. level of performance: what a person can do in their usual environment. Functioning refers to all body functions, activities and participation Disability is similarly an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions Diagnosis alone doesn’t not determine how much help someone needs, that’s why ICF comes in. WHO uses a multi-dimensional health measure as the basis for health systems performance assessment ICF is a scientific tool for consistent, internationally comparable information about the experience of health and disability ICF application: Individual level: functioning, interventions, outcomes of treatments, mobility, communication Institutional level: health care needed, how well clients are served, usefulness, cost-effective Social level: criteria for eligibility for disability benefits, policy development, needs of the people, accessibility improvements. ICF used for EXTENDING FUNCTIONING LEVELS and RANGE OF LIFE ACTIVIES policy development: eligibility criteria, ICF provides framework for social policy economic analyses: determining if resources are effectively used, cost of limitation vs. cost of changing the environment. research: framework for interdisciplinary research in disability, research comparable internationally Intervention studies: interventions and outcomes of the interventions. Changing individual, social or institutional environment. Better BADL or IADL Environmental factors: identifying barriers, making regulations to extend functioning levels TWO models of ICF Medical Model : views disability as a feature of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma or other health condition, which requires medical care provided in the form of individual treatment by professionals. Needs medical treatment to correct the problem. The Social Model : sees disability as a socially created problem not individual. Demands a political response, since the problem is created by an unaccommodating physical environment brought about by attitudes and other features of the social environment. Bio-psycho-social model. an integration of medical and social. ICF provides, by this synthesis, a coherent view of different perspectives of health: biological, individual and social. Health Condition: disease, disorder Contextual Environmental: social attitudes, climate, structures. Personal: gender, age, coping styles, background, education, character, genes Qualifiers: the presences and severity of the problem. Performance Qualifier: what the individual does in their current environment. Capacity Qualifier: ability to execute a task or an action. In a standardized environment. limitation without assistance. Health: State of complete physical, mental, social well-being, not absence of disease and infirmity. the same disability can affect each person differently, some disabilities may be hidden or not easy to see. Infancy 2/4/14 and CHAPTER 8 Germinal Stage: First Fourteen Days Zygote- Initially, a unicellular organism – 46 chromosomes Cells divide to become multicellular blastocyst Cells pluripotent (give rise to any type of cell)- through the third doubling they are the same Somewhere between the 8-cell stage and the embryo stage, differentiation takes place Embryonic Period: 3-8 Weeks By the end of the embryonic period - embryo is 5 cm long and has a well-defined large head - Limbs are present as are circulatory system, central NS, and peripheral NS - Brain waves can be recorded (as early as 3 weeks) - Bones are being ossified Fetus: Third Month - All body parts there and fetus can move every part of body - Heartbeat stronger - Digestive and excretory systems develop more fully - Fingernails, teeth and hair - Impressive brain growth (6X in size and responsive) Preterm Survival • Age of viability - age at which preterm baby can survive (about 22-24 weeks) • Eyes fused • Lanugo (fine hair – shed by 40 weeks) • 26 weeks survival rate 50% Prenatal risks: Teratogens - broad range of substances that can cause environmental insults that may result in prenatal abnormalities at birth or later in learning abilities: Alcohol, Tobacco, Cocaine In each of the first twelve months they grow an inch and Birth weight is usually tripled Body proportions change: Head = 1/4 length at birth of body Head - 1/8 length at one year of body New Born Early Infancy Middle Infancy Right away 0-3 months 4-6 months 1-4 weeks neonate Neurological Gross Motor Development Gross motor development Reflexes ATNR and STNR Newborn has all the neurons he will have for life, but Head control Prop on elbows, Prop sitting Does not have mature pathways Complete head lag. Rolling Prone to supine ATNR Then Supine to prone Does not have much myelin Fine motor Pivoting Infant is dominated by reflexes Flexed pattern that promote survival Tummy Time Nonfunctional grasp (reflexive) Fine motor Plasticity Hands to midline rooting Functional grasp Palmer grasp ,Raking Cognitive and Language Movements are influenced by Visual stimulated reach attractor wells of behavior= Crying reflexes Beginning of release Vocalizations Cooing Hand symmetry Stereotypy- intrinsic Language nonpurposeful movement Reflexive pattern that repeats itself no Babbling, speech sounds sensory feedback Social Repeating sounds Temperament Sounds result in stimulus Visual triggered reaching Social smile at 3 months Lip pursing, blowing Social, Laughter Pre-play as observer Late Infancy Transitional Toddlerhood 7-9 months 10-12 months 12- 24 months Gross motor Gross Motor Gross Motor Crawling, Commando Pull to stand, Weight on legs Refining walking Quadruped rocking , Creeping Half-kneeling and tall kneeling Beginning to run Sitting, Without supports Cruising Walk backwards, Jump Balance develops 12 months- first steps Kick and throw a ball protective extension STNR Toddling, Arm flexion Balance reactions first true word Fine motor Fine motor Dissociation of thumb/ fingers Fine motor Grasp and release Finger isolation Inferior pincer grasp established Radial grasp Superior pincer grasp Marks on paper with crayon Self-care skills Lateral pincer grasp Bilateral hand use- Help with dressing More functional release manipulation Social manipulate environment, Using spoon, cup Secure base emotions Stranger anxiety Toilet training, wash hands Hearing: Acute at birth and prenatally Sudden noises startle=crying Rhythmic soothe=lullaby, heartbeat Differentiate speech sounds by 1 month  moms voice Attentive to human voice Vision: Least mature sense at birth Newborns legally blind at birth see objects between 4 and 30 inches away 2 months look more intently at human face 3 months focus on the eyes and mouth Depth perception occurs by age 6 months Binocular Vision 14 months Senses: Gustatory: Sweet is calming and soothing, Distinguish own mothers smell and breast milk Tactile: Can feel and respond to pain Olfaction: Can distinguish between odors and have preferences Transitions to toddlerhood when infant can walk and talk Body growth slows (but still rapid compared to an adult) By 24 months, most children 28 pounds (5th of adult weight) 34 inches (1/2 of adult height) Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex: turn head to breath, hand eye coordination. 6- 8 months Rooting: feeding reflex until 3 months. Crying reflex: 0-3 months reflex after 3 months is an manipulative cry to get what they want We are born with our temperament and mood. Tummy time: prevent head from being flat, learn to crawl, vision development. Crawling 8-10 months, creeping is the name for crawling Circle sitting: base of support is large. Cruising: walking while holding on to something. Toilet training 2 years -> 5 years Develop cephally  Caudally Emotional Development: The First 6 Months: Distress, Sadness, Anger from frustration Pleasure 2-3 months  Laughter, curiosity around 3 months Fear of social events 9-14 months  Stranger wariness, Separation anxiety Normal at age 1, intensifies by 2 if strong after 3=emotional disorder Fear of unexpected sights and sounds (around 12 months) Sense of “me” (12 months) Self-awareness, pride, shame and embarrassment (around 18 months) Cognitive Development: Newborn Early Infant Middle Infancy 0-3 4-6 Reacts to stimuli with reflexes Infants can learn with Object Constancy Repeated experiences Things remain despite changes Build schemas for objects High motivation Cause and Effect Infant learns that certain movements will produce a sensory response Soon learns that certain behaviors will produce a response in others Late infancy Transition Toddlerhood 7-9 10-12 12-24 Ends-Means Relationship Trial and Error Learning Memory is fragile in the 1st year Babies think about a goal and Child continuously experimenting Infantile Amnesia plan a means to achieving it with objects The first true goal-directed Many combinations are tried behavior before child develops a plan of Mental Combinations action Eventually, the child is able to mentally represent the objects Object Permanence and mentally manipulate objects Realization that objects still exist Begin to think about even when they can’t be seen consequences Will look for an object that is trial and error decreased and true covered up cognitive learning emerges 0-2: Crying, Cooing 3-6: Squeals, croons, vowel sounds 6-10: Babbling (both consonant and vowel sounds) ma ma, ba ba da da Babies with hearing problems have little babbling 10-12: repeat specific sounds, gesture Deaf babies first signs 12: first spoken words; Holophrases (one word = entire sentence) 1st recognizable words spoken 13-18: growth of vocabulary (to 50 words) 18: vocab. Spurt-3 or more new words per day-much variation some toddlers do not speak yet 21: Two word sentences 24: Multiword sentences Social Bond: Infants learn to read other emotions and to develop skills of social interaction Adults try to make infant emotions more positive Infants brain needs social interaction to develop fully More frequent as the infant grows Parents and infants average about 1 hour face-to-face play daily New born heart rate: 120-140 beats per min. slows to 80-100 over the first year. Prehension: the use of the hands for grasping, holding and manipulating of objects. Reflexive stepping behavior in a new born. (Figure 8-4) Infancy Protective, Parachute reactions: safety response for the child. Arms in extension. 5-6 months. If the center of mass is falling and cannot be fixed. Equilibrium reactions: attempt to reestablish the center of mass over the base of support. 5-6 months Pivot Prone pattern, Prone extension pattern: antigravity control, Landau reaction extension through hips. (Figure 8-7) Infancy Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex: the stimulus for STNR is position of the head as detected by join receptors in the neck. Head is flexed or extended. Arms hollow the postural attitude of the head and the legs do the opposite. Aids in sitting. Astasia: without stance: an infant brings their legs up when attemps are made to get them to stand. Disappears during middle infancy. Object permanence by 6 months the infant is able to obtain partially hidden objects and experiments with object permanence by dropping things and seeing what happens. Creeping: all fours feet and hands., Crawing belly-down pattern (figure 8-16) SIDS: sudden infant death syndrome causes mothers to put babies supine more (back to sleep) Preschool Years 2/6 and CHAPTER 10 Lower body lengthens, Child becomes slimmer Fat turns to muscle BMI (body mass index) lowest at age 5 Steady increase in height and weight 3 inches in height per year and 4 ½ lbs. Per year Height/Weight influenced by: Genetic background, Cultural differences and Nutrition By age 5 - 90% of brain weight achieved Dendrite networks, Synapses, Myelination continues Maturation of Pre-frontal Cortex Ages 2-6 More regular sleep patterns Emotions more responsive to specific stimuliTemper tantrums subside, Less Uncontrollable laughter/ tears Focus on attention/decrease impulsiveness Behaviors caused by immature prefrontal cortex Tactile Sensory: Largest sensory organ – the skin, Requires accurate filtering of information Allows us to produce fine motor movements with vision occluded Proprioception: joints and body in space Vestibular: Allows us to orient our head in space, equilibrium reactions for postural stability Postural stability is needed before we can have distal mobility of the hand Myelination of the corpus callosum and lateralization of brain =better coordination Ages 2-6 improve ability to direct and refine their actions. Balance, keeping your center of gravity (COG) over your base of support (BOS) Which hand you use is established by age 5 (handedenss)  fine motor control Finger to palm translation: Object moved from finger/ thumb into the palm. Example: picking up a coin from a surface and moving the coin to the palm of the hand. (12-15 months) Palm to finger translation: Object moved the palm out to the distal finger surface, using the thumb. Example: moving a coin to the finger tips to place in a vending machine. (2-2.5 years) Rotation : Movement of an object around one or more of its axes, which occurs at or near the pads of the fingers. Example: Using the pencil side and then the eraser side Bilateral Integration: Ability to use two sides of the body together functionally Bilateral symmetrical (ex: clapping hands) Bilateral asymmetrical (ex: Stabilization and manipulation) Bilateral reciprocal (such as stringing beads) Isolated, controlled, bilateral movements that are independent of each other, such as scissor cutting Scissor cutting: Development: Develops in sequential stages, beginning at age 2-3, and usually mastered around age 6. Prerequisite skills include: Eye hand coordination, motor planning, bilateral coordination, hand and finger dexterity, and tool use. Grasping patterns: Tripod, lateral, pincer= precision Spherical, cylindrical, hook, plate(lateral)= POWER Holding a Pencil Ulnar grasp (Also Called) Palmar Supinate Develops between 12 – 18 months  grabbing with whole hand Digital Pronate Present from 2- 3 years Four fingers Or Brush Grasp Present 3.5 -4 Static Tripod: Movement occurs at shoulder, elbow and wrist. Develops around 4- 5 years of age Dynamic Tripod: Movement occurs in fingers and wrist. Develops around 5 years of age Visual Motor integration for using a pencil Combines vision with proprioception and tactile to develop motor plans Vision and hand skills are closely related Follows a sequence: Simple horizontal lines  Vertical lines  Circles  Diagonal lines 3 year old 4 year old 5 year old 6 year old -Kick and throw ball -Catch a ball not too -Skip/gallop in rhythm -Draw and write with small or thrown too fast one hand -Jump with both feet off -sing in rhythm floor -Use scissors -Write simple words -Copy difficult shape e.g -Pedal a tricycle -Hop on either foot -Scan print with good ----diamond directionality -Copy simple shapes -Self feed with fork e.g -Use knife to cut -Ride a bike -Dress self ----circle rectangle -Tie a bow -Do cartwheels -Walk downstairs -Copies most letters -Throw a ball -Tie shoes -Climb ladders -Pour juice with no spill -Wash face and comb -Catch a ball -Brush teeth hair Piaget: Preoperational Thought Child not yet able to use logical operations in thinking Obstacles to Logical Operations Centration: Tendency to focus on one way of thinking/perception Egocentrism: Inability to distinguish own perspective from someone else’s Empathy is an exception Conservation: Liquid, number, matter, length. Example pouring same amount of water in tall or short glass. The child will not understand that it is the same water just in a larger glass and will assume it is a diff amount. Vygotsky: Social Learning Every Aspect of cognitive development embedded in social context Children are curious and observant Ask questions assuming others know the answers E.g. why is the grass green, why is the sky blue etc. Memory - Limitation: Deficient memory circuits in brain OR Lack of strategies for retrieval - Script Creation: Retain “scripts” of familiar or recurring experiences - Memories of Special Experiences: Disneyland, Recollecting personally meaningful material Language Explosion Fast Mapping = develop interconnected set of categories for words (mental language map) according to meaning E.g. quick to learn new animal names as they are mapped in brain close to other know animal names Age 3 years = 1,000-5,000 words, Age 4 years = 3,000-10,000 Age 5 years = 5,000-20,000 Self Esteem -how a individual evaluates their own self worth, personal estimate of success and worthiness Self Concept- understanding of self includes self esteem, appearance, personality and various traits Pride : 3-5 year olds have positive self concepts, high self esteem. Believe they can achieve anything Not afraid to try new things Guilt-people blame themselves. AGE 5 Shame-people feel others are blaming them: AGE 2 Guilt and shame often occur together, Guilt is more mature as it is internalized-originates within bothers person even if no one else knows. Rough and Tumble Play: rolling and running and wrestling Sociodramatic Play Explore and rehearse social roles they have seen Test ability to convince others Regulate emotions through imagination Examine personal concerns in nonthreatening way Types of Play: Solitary, Onlooker, Parallel, Associative (enjoying company of others), Cooperative, Fantasy, Constructive School readiness: Mostly independent with ADLs, Tool Use, Attention, Memory, Functional Communication, Behavior Regulation, Following Rules and Social Conventions. Physically and emotionally healthy. , ADLs Infant transitions into a toddler when walking occurs, age 12-18 months The shift is from acquisition of motor control to acquisition of communication and social and behavior control. Dynamic mobility: the ability to time, anticipate and change motions while actively moving. Volitional behaviors: reflexes and reactions that the individual chooses in order to achieve goal. Calibration of movement is the judgment of force, speed and directional control needed for the task. Power grasp: used to manage large or heavy objects. Precision grasp: emerge slightly later in development. Sensory integration: brains ability to automatically combine sensory from a variety of different senses. Discrimnitive touch functions: rough, smooth, curved Haptic perception: active memory of touch, texture, shape  knowing you have a penny in your hand cant see Graphomotor skills: collection of conceptual and perceptual motor skills involved in drawing Attention and Memory: - sensory motor period : 0-2 years intelegence is demonstrated through motor activity - preoperational period : 3-6 years: intelegence is demonstrated though symbols language memory developed egocentric: do not considered other thoughts School Aged child Development Slower growth, Greater strength Immunization rates, prevents disease, Many families fear vaccinations  Overall medical care in US improved Physical Activity: Better health, Less Obesity, Cooperation, Respect Problems include: Loss of self-esteem, Injuries, Reinforce prejudice and stress Variations in physiques By age 6 – body build is predictive of adult proportions Childhood Obesity = 20% overweight for height 7% in 1980 18% in 2014  still not sure if she wants 20 or 18% Causes of Obesity: Heredity, Activity level, Quantity, Types, Attitude toward food, Overfeeding in infancy and late childhood, Television viewing. Help: Do not use food as reinforce, Encourage activity / gross motor play, Educate children, supervised play groups CDC guidelines – 9 steps 1) coordinated approach to develop healthy eating and physica
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