[LIN 207] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Intro to Linguistics
What is linguistics?
• There are roughly 7000 different languages in the world, and many more dialects
• Li▯guisti▯s is the s▯ste▯ati▯ stud▯ of the ▯o▯ld▯s la▯guages
• We are descriptive, not prescriptive: we treat all languages and dialects as equally correct and
What is sociolinguistics?
• Sociolinguistics is the study of how language (linguistics) relates to social context (socio-)
• how does language vary and change depending on context?
• How do people use language to express who they are?
– Age or life stage
– Cultural and/or religious background
– Where you are from
Language and Dialect
• In actual practice, the distinction between language and dialect is not clear-cut
– Is it a linguistic distinction?
– Or a political one?
– Or both?
• Mutual intelligibility, but speakers see them as separate languages:
– Spanish and Catalan
– Hindi and Urdu
– Swedish and Norwegian
– New Zealand Sign Language and Australian Sign Language
• Some differences, but speakers see them as the same language:
– Mandarin and Cantonese
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