Locaion: endemic in asia and entry into west hemisphere. Symptoms: severe diarrhea rice water stool" (mucus); 5-20 l h2o loss/ day. Ideniicaion: gram (-), moile (lagellated) bacillus, comma shaped bac, free living (env) & gut (pathogenic, facultaive anaerobe, oxidase , glucose, sucrose uilizaion (fermentaion) Lps anigenic variants used for serotyping: >138 o serotypes, most prevalent: o1 & o139. Virulence factors : capsule (polysaccharide, pilus (atachment to gut epithelial cells, lagella moility. Ingested sensiive to stomach acid so large dose needed colonize in si toxin producion diarrhea. Ideniicaion: two polar lagella motile, vibrio-like bacterium, gram (-), helical bacillus (curved or spinal rod, does not ferment sugars, microaerophilic requires co2 for growth, small. Virulence factors: capsule, moility, guillain-barre syndrome: autoimmune disease elicited by anigenic cross-reacivity between capsule polysaccharides and sugar containing lipids on surface of neuronal cells (similar to sugar) Promiscuous host range: major cause of diarrhea disease in animals and recently implicated in human disease.