[PGY 300] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (15 pages long!)

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PGY 300
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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PGY 300
Dr. Slaughter
Neurophysiology 1
2/1/17
Central Canal
Hole that runs from brain through spinal cord
Contains cerebrospinal fluid
Spinal tap → look for bacteria affecting CNS
Meninges
Dura mater
Thickest of the 3 meninges
Provide protection for neurons inside spinal cord
Arachnoid membrane
Loaded with cerebrospinal fluid
Extra cushion to protect brain
Cerebrospinal fluid provides nutrition to parts of brain
Circulates like a pool around brain
Like a flood of solution
Picks up waste products from brain
Meningitis
Inflammation of meninges
Bacterial (particularly dangerous) or viral
Spinal Nerves
Some come into spinal cord from periphery
Others leave spinal cord and go out to muscles and glands
Gray Matter
Central part of spinal cord
Nerve cell bodies (neurons and processes that connect with each other)
Neurons coming from periphery synapse on gray matter
Have cell bodies (soma) in dorsal root ganglion (group of nerve cell bodies
outside of CNS) → fibers running through and into dorsal horn (part of gray
matter)
White Matter
Peripheral circumference of spinal cord
Fibers running up and down spinal cord (like insulated wires) are white and glisten
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White attributable to white lipid membrane (myelin)
Insulation around nerve fibers
Autonomic ganglion
Output of spinal cord and brain
Controls viscerals (heart, gut, kidneys)
Efferent system
Sends signals out from spinal cord
Dorsal Root Ganglions
Refer to gray matter
Afferent neurons
Carries sensory information towards CNS
Sensory neurons
Go into dorsal root
Ventral Root
From ventral horn → ventral root → muscles and glands
Efferent neurons
Leaves CNS
Output neurons
Motor neurons
Control motor activity
Ascending Tracts
In white matter
Carry sensory information up to the brain
Descending Tracts
In white matter
Leaves CNS
Carry command to motor neurons
Interneurons
Completely contained within CNS
Receives incoming signals from sensory neurons
Do major processing inside CNS
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Also contained in large ventricles located in different parts of brain
Flow of solution connects ventricles (thing Great Lakes)
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