PMY 302 Midterm: Emerging adult
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7 Pages
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Department
Pharmacology And Toxicology
Course Code
PMY 302
Professor
stewart Clark

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Chapter 12: young adult (21-45 yrs) 1. General 1) Changes are less predictable and more variable because the major markers are linked to personal, social, cultural forces rather than biological evens 2) Adult development is defined by our choices of roles and relationships – family and career 3) Normative events: events, and the transitions that surround them that occur at relatively specific times in the lifespan which most people in an age cohort experience, such as marriage and retirement • Defined the transition points for early, middle and later adulthood • Internal sense (clear expectations, minimal stress) • Culture • Age clock: a form of internal timing used as a measure of adult development; a way of knowing that if we are progressing too slowly or too quickly in terms of key social events that occur during adulthood - 35 yr old still in college: slow - 35 yr old and retire: too fast 4) Idiosyncratic events: events that are unanticipated such as the death of a spouse, typically cause considerable stress and readjustment in a person’s life • A need foe major reorganization of the person’s life 2. Perspectives of young adulthood 1) Wide range: notable inclines and declines 2) Contextual paradigms • Definition: theories that emphasize the interactions of numerous environmental, social, psychological and historical factors that influence development • Multiple factors influence adult development • Historical - Life expectancy longer - Infant mortality is lower • Technological: the computer gage • Social and cultural factors 3) Variability • Biologic age: an individual’s position with regard to his or her lifespan. Effected by genetics and lifestyle - A 40yr old sick man vs 40 yr old healthy man • Social age: an individual current status compared to social norms. - Eg. Age to leave nest, marry and have children, a 40 yr old married man vs 40 yr old single man • Psychological age: age-an individual’s current ability to cope with and adapt to social and environmental demands. - Intelligence, learning ability, feelings attitudes motives 3. Physical development 1) Physical peak • Vitality, strength, fitness (endurance) • Decline in late adulthood 2) Sexual and reproductive peak 3) Health risks increase with age 4. Habitual response 1) Diet elimination sleep: varies but consistent 2) Unique habits: smoking, gum chewing, biting nails 5. Health risks 1) Early adulthood: accidents (15-24 yrs old) • Men are 3X more likely to die from injuries 2) Diabetes 3) Heart disease: especially with family history 4) Cancers: testicular and breast, low incidence but high mortality 5) STD • Transmission of body fluids: vaginal, oral, anal • Types: Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, Hpv, Syphilis, HIV/AIDS 6. Sexuality 1) Preferences are made • Heterosexual • Gay and lesbian • Monogamy: when you are married to, or in a sexual relationship with, one person at a time 2) Peak sexual activity and fertility • Women: ends with menopause • Men: remain fertile through adult years • Infertility: in vitro, hormone injection 3) Attitude • Culture • Family values • Individual risk vs. benefit profile 7. Cognitive domain 1) Characteristics • Vision decrease: presbyopia • Hearing, taste, touch, smell and language remain consistent 2) Major cognitive crossroad • Decision in choosing a career, higher education • Base on - A higher level of understanding: Ability to abstract and hypothesize - Material means - Intellectual quotient and abilities - Social circumstance - Innate abilities 3) Impact of college • Positive: – Career choice – Industry – Social and professional networking/support • Negative – Isolation – Stress – Poor habitual response 4) Bloom’s taxonomy • a set of three hierarchical models used to classify educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity. The three lists cover the learning objectives in cognitive, affective and sensory (psychomotor) domains. • 5) Theorists • Piaget: formal logic - the ability to abstract and hypothesize. - Begins in early adolescences and carries through adulthood. Piaget did not extensively study adult cognitive development and the flaw is the changes in aging • Labouvie: postformal thought - Thoughts that are heavily contextualized and includes consideration of not only logical but also social and interpersonal issues - Cognitive and emotional aspects - Reasoning skills are advanced - Ethical and moral issues evolve (drinkerdivorce?) - Eg: critical analysis & clinical reasoning in nursing for higher lvl thinking - Dialectical thoughts: thought-integrates opposing or conflicting ideas: decisions are not always clear cut. Require careful analysis of pros and cons to come to decisions. 8. Psychosocial domain 1) Individual becomes multi-faceted, playing many roles in society. Very Bromfenbrennerish 2) Milestones • College - Women>men, more women in older students - First year of college: anxiety, isolated, depressed/withdrawn, loss of identity. - Reasons that people leave college: work>20 hours, poor academic
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