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Study Guide Exam_1.doc

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University at Buffalo
PSY 101

Review Sheet for Exam 1 Lecture 1/Chapter What is Psychology? - The study of behavior and mental process What does psychology try to do? (i.e., four goals/aims/jobs) - To describe, explain, predict and control. Who was Wilhelm Wundt? - Applied scientific principle to the human mind - Structuralism - Objective Introspection o Not biased o Make psychology more scientific Who was William James? - Functionalism Lecture 2 and 3/Chapter 1 What is wrong with human intuition? - know the different types of biases discussed in class o Overconfidence o Hindsight bias o Availability bias o Confirmation Scientific Attitude - Humility - Skepticism Critical Thinking - Think without blindly accepting conclusions and arguments Scientific Method - 1) Perceive a question - 2) State a clear theory - 3) Form hypotheses - 4) Test those hypotheses by Collecting Data - 5) Evaluate the theory/draw conclusions - 6) Share/Report the results Laboratory versus Field Research - Laboratory research – research conducted in a controlled environment - Field research – research conducted in real world environment Correlational research - correlational coefficient - types of correlations (i.e., positive or negative) - determining the strength of a correlation Spurious Correlation - Extraneous factors that mislead the correlations Determining Causality (3 criteria) - Cause must come before the effect - There must be a correlation - The casual relationship must be nonspurious Experimental Research - Independent Variable – the variable that is being experimented - Dependent Variable – the outcomes variable that changes due to the IV - Control Variables – variables that are kept the same Random Sampling - Picking random people from a population of interest Random Assignment - Randomly assigning people to the controlled group or the experimented group Quasi-experimental designs - Sometimes we cannot assigned people to conditions - Studies of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and Suitability Evaluation Scale - They are considered valid research designs Statistical Reasoning - Using statistic to organize, summarize, and make inferences from data - Mode, Mean, Median Making inferences using statistics (i.e., what does statistically significant mean?) - - Statistically significant – If the results could have occurred by chance 5 or fewer times out of 100. Ethical Standard - Benefit must be greater or equal to the risk Tuskegee Syphilis Study - 600 Africans o 399 had syphilis and 201 doesn’t - Told they were studying for bad blood - Penicillin came out and did not treat the Africans Informed Consent - What is the purpose, you can quit the research. If ever new evidence or events added on to the research, the participant will be informed. Is Psychology Dangerous? - Can be misleading to the public mind - Cause harm through irresponsible research Lecture 4 and 5/Chapter 2 Biopsychsocial systems - Everything that psychology stimulates the biological factors - Things that happen in a social context Be able to identify different parts of a neuron - 2mph – 270mph to go an inch - Axon – sends the signals - Dendrites – receive the signals - Soma – cell body - Myelin – accelerates the signals - Terminal Branches – pass on the signal to the next neuron Know the function of the different parts of the neuron Three types of neurons - Sensory Neurons: neurons that carry information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system. - Motor Neurons: neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. - Interneurons: neural connectors, link sensory and motor neurons. Synapse - Space between the dendrites and the terminal bran
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