Review Sheet for Exam 1
What is Psychology?
- The study of behavior and mental process
What does psychology try to do? (i.e., four goals/aims/jobs)
- To describe, explain, predict and control.
Who was Wilhelm Wundt?
- Applied scientific principle to the human mind
- Objective Introspection
o Not biased
o Make psychology more scientific
Who was William James?
Lecture 2 and 3/Chapter 1
What is wrong with human intuition?
- know the different types of biases discussed in class
o Hindsight bias
o Availability bias
- Think without blindly accepting conclusions and arguments
- 1) Perceive a question
- 2) State a clear theory
- 3) Form hypotheses
- 4) Test those hypotheses by Collecting Data
- 5) Evaluate the theory/draw conclusions
- 6) Share/Report the results
Laboratory versus Field Research
- Laboratory research – research conducted in a controlled environment
- Field research – research conducted in real world environment
- correlational coefficient
- types of correlations (i.e., positive or negative)
- determining the strength of a correlation
- Extraneous factors that mislead the correlations Determining Causality (3 criteria)
- Cause must come before the effect
- There must be a correlation
- The casual relationship must be nonspurious
- Independent Variable – the variable that is being experimented
- Dependent Variable – the outcomes variable that changes due to the IV
- Control Variables – variables that are kept the same
- Picking random people from a population of interest
- Randomly assigning people to the controlled group or the experimented group
- Sometimes we cannot assigned people to conditions
- Studies of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and Suitability Evaluation Scale
- They are considered valid research designs
- Using statistic to organize, summarize, and make inferences from data
- Mode, Mean, Median
Making inferences using statistics (i.e., what does statistically significant mean?)
- - Statistically significant – If the results could have occurred by chance 5 or fewer times
out of 100.
- Benefit must be greater or equal to the risk
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
- 600 Africans
o 399 had syphilis and 201 doesn’t
- Told they were studying for bad blood
- Penicillin came out and did not treat the Africans
- What is the purpose, you can quit the research. If ever new evidence or events added on
to the research, the participant will be informed.
Is Psychology Dangerous?
- Can be misleading to the public mind
- Cause harm through irresponsible research
Lecture 4 and 5/Chapter 2
- Everything that psychology stimulates the biological factors
- Things that happen in a social context
Be able to identify different parts of a neuron
- 2mph – 270mph to go an inch
- Axon – sends the signals
- Dendrites – receive the signals - Soma – cell body
- Myelin – accelerates the signals
- Terminal Branches – pass on the signal to the next neuron
Know the function of the different parts of the neuron
Three types of neurons
- Sensory Neurons: neurons that carry information from the sense receptors to the central
- Motor Neurons: neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system
to the muscles and glands.
- Interneurons: neural connectors, link sensory and motor neurons.
- Space between the dendrites and the terminal bran