1) What is classical conditioning? (Be sure to know CS, CR, UCS, and UCR.)
It is stimulus response learning.
The ability to perform a particular behavior when a stimulus is present.
a. Unconditioned stimulus automatically elicits an unconditioned response
b. Conditioned stimulus initially elicits no response
c. Conditioned response is learned with repeated reinforcement with reward
d. In some cases the CR is different from the UR
2) What is long-term potentiation?
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between two neurons that
results from stimulating them synchronously
3) What is the synaptic mechanism by which LTPoccurs?
LTP is a NMDAdependent receptor. Glutamate activates both NMDAandAMPAreceptors. When there is a
weak electrical stimulation in the presynaptic neurons, there will be a release of glutamate from the axon
- However, since it is only a weak stimulus, only theAMPAreceptor is activated. The NMDAreceptor is
only slightly depolarized due to Mg ion blocking the opening.As such, the EPSP is solely by the
- With large enough stimulus, theAMPAis able to expel the Mg from the NMDAreceptor, that allow
calcium ion to enter.
- Calcium acts as a second messenger, which would in turn activate the CAM and the CaMKll. The CAM
would increase the Na conductance. The CaMKll would promote the movement ofAMPAreceptor from
the intercellular stores into the membrane, thus making more receptors available.
- In addition, the Ca would activate the retrograde signal generator that releases neurotransmitter such as
nitric oxide (NO).
- With moreAMPA receptors, the response to a stimulus will be stronger and thus, LTP occur.
4) What is reinforcement?
Event that increases the future probability of the response.
- Positive reinforcement: Give a reward
- Negative reinforcement: Take away punishment
5) Which neural circuits are involved in reinforcement?
a. What stimulates the VTA:
Cues from food (sight/smell)
• Do it because I like it
Hunger • Decrease in hunger feels good = activate VTA
b. VTA (have cell bodies that make dopamine) is stimulated sends information along MFB
(median forebrain bundle) [all the axon of the dopamine neurons in the midbrain to the
forebrain]to the nucleus accumbens (NA) DAis released Behaviour is perceived as
c. As long as the VTA is stimulated and dopamine is increased, reinforcement of behaviour has
6) What is perceptual learning?
a. Classical conditioning?
b. Instrumental conditioning?
c. Relational learning?
- Perceptual learning is the recognition of things seen before
- Classical conditioning is a form of conditioned and learning where two stimuli are presented in close
succession repeatedly, until the response given to one becomes associated with the other
- Instrumental (operant) conditioning is a form of learning that uses reinforcement and punishment to
increase the probability of a particular behaviour
- Relational learning is the learning of relationship among individual stimuli
7) Know H.M.’s case in detail.
a. Understand what his damage was as well as what his symptoms were.
b. Know what we learned about memory by his case.
Damage: Medial temporal lobe (damage part of the hypothalamus)
Take away point:
1) The hippocampus in not the location of long-term memories and is not required for the retrieval of
long term memories
2) The hippocampus is not the location of short-term memories
3) The hippocampus is involved in converting short-term memories to long-term memories
(consolidation of memory)
8) What are declarative and nondeclarative memory?
Declarative memory is memory that can be verbally expressed
- Memory for events in a person’s past
Nondeclarative memory is memory that cannot be verbally expressed
- Does not depend on the hippocampus formation
- Acollective term for perceptual, stimulus-response and motor memory
9) How do we test spatial memory in animals? (Be sure to know the Morris water maze.)
The Morris water maze is widely used to study spatial memory and learning.Animals are placed in a pool of
water that is colored opaque with powdered non-fat milk or non-toxic tempera paint, where they must swim
to a hidden escape platform. Because they are in opaque water, the animals cannot see the platform, and
cannot rely on scent to find the escape route. Instead, they must rely on external/extra-maze cues.As the
animals become more familiar with the task, they are able to find the platform more quickly. 10)What is the relationship between the hippocampus and declarative, spatial, and configural
learning? This includes understanding what each of these is and how we test each.
Spatial learning: Morris water maze
- The activation of place cells in the hippocampal formation. Where a person is at a particular place, a set of place
cell will show a spike in action potential. These sets of place cell would form a specific pattern that encodes a
location. Place cells are located at the posterior hippocampus.
Declarative: Remembering past events / Learning new words / Finding way in new environment
- The ability to retain and recall episodic memory is hippocampus
- The formation to new declarative memory is due to the hippocampus and parahippocampus
Atheory that assumes that, when organisms receive classical conditioning with a compound conditional
stimulus, they associate the entire compound with the unconditional stimulus rather than forming separate
associations between each of its elements and the unconditional stimulus
AMPA receptor An ionotropic glutamate receptor that controls a sodium channel
When open EPSP
Anterograde Amnesia for events that occurs after some disturbance to the brain (head injury or
amnesia degenerative brain disease