1) What is a stroke?
Stoke damages the brain thus impair the behaviour/function associated to that brain part
2) What are the two types of stroke?
- 2 class of stoke
o Ischaemic – No blood supply
Clogging of blood vessels
No oxygen and glucose can go to areas where the blocked blood vessels
The neurons without oxygen and glucose would release toxic gas after some
time and would die, taking with it other cell bodies
o Hemorrhagic – Bursting of blood vessels
The blood is going to leak out from the cut of the explosion
Cause massive loss of blood
Apply large pressure on the skull as the tissue gets compressed
Patients would not bleed to death but die due to the pressure of the brain
3) Why do neurons die during/after a stroke?
1) Release of glutamate when cells are deprived from oxygen and glucose OR
2) Glutamate would then over excites cells and cause death
a. Excitotoxic lesion
Infuse glutamate agonist to kills neurons
b. When neurons die, toxic gas is released and it can cause death
a. Block the effect: Glutamate antagonist are used to prevent the death of neurons
b. Minimise the effect by treating the secondary damage
4) What are the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease?
1) Early stage
a. Tremor / Rigidity / Difficulty initiating movement (biggest deficit)
2) Late stage
a. Cognitive problems / Sleep disorder / Emotional problems (due to the knowledge of
going to die) b. Disregulation of emotional circuit can affect the emotion
5) What happens to the brain in a person suffering from Parkinson’s?
Death of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra
6) What are the symptoms of Huntington’s chorea?
General restlessness / Small unintentionally initiated motions / Lack of coordination / Sl