Study Guide: Chapter 16.docx

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PSY 351
Scott Wersinger

Chapter 16 1) What is autism? a. What are the neural correlates of this disorder? Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. 2) What isADHD? a. How is it treated? b. Why might this be effective? ADHD is a problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination - Medication (Ritalin) - Behavioural therapy - Combination 3) What is PTSD? a. What are the neural correlates of this disorder? b. How is it treated? Post-traumatic stress disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you've seen or experienced a traumatic event that involved the threat of injury or death. - Brain region: Prefrontal cortex,Amygdala & Hippocampus o 20% reduction in the hippocampus volume - Treatment: o Cognitive and behavioural therapy o SSRI/ other anti-depressant drug 4) What is a substance abuse disorder? Substance-related disorders are disorders of intoxication, dependence, abuse, and substance withdrawal caused by various substances, both legal and illegal. 5) What is reinforcement? a. What is positive reinforcement? b. Negative? Areinforcer is a temporally contiguous environmental event, or an effect directly produced by a response (e.g., a musician playing a melody), that functions to strengthen or maintain the response that preceded the event. Areinforcer is demonstrated only if the strengthening or maintenance effect occurs. - Positive reinforcement occurs when a reward, sometimes called a reinforcer, is given for a specific desired behavior. - Negative Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition. 6) What is physical dependence? Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction 7) What is psychological dependence? Aperson becomes dependent on something to help alleviate specific emotions. 8) Why are drugs addicting? Drugs are addictive because they either mimic or stimulate the production of brain chemicals that cause feelings of pleasure. • Taking a recreational drug causes a surge in levels of dopamine in your brain, which trigger feelings of pleasure. Your brain remembers these feelings and wants them repeated. • If you become addicted, the substance takes on the same significance as other survival behaviors, such as eating and drinking. • Changes in your brain interfere with your ability to think clearly, exercise good judgment, control your behavior, and feel normal without drugs. • Whether you’re addicted to inhalants, heroin, Xanax, speed, or Vicodin, the uncontrollable craving to use grows more important than anything else, including family, friends, career, and even your own health and happiness. • The urge to use is so strong that your mind finds many ways to deny or rationalize the addiction. You may drastically underestimate the quantity of drugs you’re taking, how much it impacts your life, and the level of control you have over your drug use. 9) What does cocaine do at the level of the synapse? a. Amphetamine? b. Alcohol? c. Heroin? d. Nicotine? i. How does each affect the function of the brain? Amphetamine – Taken orally - Increases release of dopamine from presynaptic terminals - Reverses the dopamine transporter o The neurons excretes dopamine rather than reabsorbing it
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