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Soc 101 exam 1 study guide .docx
Soc 101 exam 1 study guide .docx

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University at Buffalo
SOC 101
Professor Hatton

Soc 101 Exam 1 -- Study guide Ch. 1: • What is sociology? o The study of Social life, social change, and the social causes and consequences of human behavior • sociological imagination o Realize that individuals are linked to social sources o The ability to see the societal patterns that influence the behavior of individuals, family, groups, and organizations o Understanding decisions and problems in the context of society • C. Wright Mills o Came up with the Sociological Imagination • Emile Durkheim/ Suicide/ types of solidarity o Said suicide rates are related (inversely) to strength of social ties o Depended on people’s level of Social Integration • social integration o How connected people feel to society and each other • social facts o External to individualChange behavior o Exist outside of the individual o BUT they influence the individual by shaping their behavior • origins of sociology as a disciplineResulted from 3 processes o 1. Industrial RevolutionChanged everything about social and economic life  Went from Small villages and agrarian societyGoing to work (causing a divide in family and economic world)  From working as individualsWorking for wages  From working from homeIndustrialized cities o 2.Political RevolutionsAmerican and French revolutions led to social upheaval  Nature of man and hierarchy questioned as well as society  People believed in inalienable rights o 3.Imperialism (Empire Building)  Wanted to be able to rationalize their dominating of culture • social Darwinism/Herbert Spencer o Herbert SpencerArgued sociology should be separate from societal issues o Societies evolve from Barbarians to civilized societies  Only most intelligent surviveSurvival of the Fittest o Never Conducted research or had evidence of this claim  Still used to explain inequality and imperialization • Auguste Comte /positivism FOUNDER OF SOCIOLOGY o Affected by French Revolution o Why societies stay togetherused Positivism-apply scientific method to social world • Karl Marx / types of alienation o 1. Product alienation Factory workers get disconnected from the product they’re making all day o 2.AcitivityAlienationWork becomes drudgery not a place to realize own goals o 3.Species alienationcome from 1 and 2Become alienated from oneself because you’re working for “the man” not yourself o 4. SocialAlienationAlienation of workers from each otherbecome isolated • Max Weber / protestant ethic & capitalism/ verstehen o Weber studied how religion influence capitalism o Found that the more protestants that were in a society the greater the economy was  This was a result of the protestant work ethicGod fearing, working hard and save money  More protestants, more capitalism o VerstehenThe need to understand personal meaning of a particular social phenomena • symbolic interactionism / dramaturgy/ Goffman o 1. Symbolic InteractionsHow people define reality. They use SYBOLS  Symbols-meanings assigned, learned and changed • Concrete and abstract  (e.g.) Money as a gift • Sometimes seen as thoughtless • How money giving as a symbol has changed over time o Dramaturgy Aperson’s identity is not stable but constantly remade  Social life is a stage with a front stage of visible behavior and a back stage of behavior other’s don’t see o Weaknesses Of Symbolic interactions:  Descriptive NOT predictive  Not a theory  MACROSOCIAL level only • functionalism (aka structural functionalism or functional analysis)Order and stability o Society is a system working together for stability o Each structure has a purpose to produce stability o Manifest FunctionsIntended consequences of Social Behavior  (i.e.) Rain dance causing rain o Latent FunctionsUnintended consequences of social behavior  (i.e.) Rain Dance causing bonding o Social DysfunctionsUndesired consequences impeding social stability  (i.e.) Rain Dancing causing inequality o Weaknesses:  No 1 set of values  People don’t do what they say so values do not equal behavior  Can be used to justify bad things such as poverty • conflict theory o Conflict is inevitable but can promote change o Societies are defined by competition for resourcesInstabilityInequalityCompetition o Karl Marx- Argued that Proletariat and Bourgeois will always be in conflict with each other o Consensus on ideology will never be reached but can impose their ideas if they’re powerful enough • W.E.B. DuBois o FirstAfrican American to earn doctorate at Harvard o One of the founders (along with JaneAdams) of NAACP o Argued thatAfricanAmericans were trying to “pass as white” and this weakened the social ties of AfricanAmericans • JaneAddams o One of the Founding members of theAmerican Sociological Society o Dedicated her life to social justice o Co-founded Hull House with Ellen Gates Starr • applied sociology o Using sociology to solve problems (solving problems in the work place, social issues, disrupt terrorist groups) Ch. 5: • steps of conducting research o Select a topic o Define the problem o Review the literature o Formulate a hypothesis o Choose a research method o Collect the data  Need access to subjects  Must have validity- Measures are consistent  Must have reliability- Repeatable with the same results • operational definitions of variables o The way in which a researcher measures a variable • Variables o Afactor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary from one case to another o Something changed in an experiment to record its effect • Hypothesis o Astatement made to explain a phenomena • Validity o The extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure • Reliability o The extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results • correlation vs. causation; spurious (cause, effect, and spurious correlations p. 133) o If there are statistically significant resultsa CORRELATION is made o Experimenters try to control variable to find CAUSATION means that a change in one variable is caused by another variable  3 conditions necessary for Causation: Correlation, temporal priority, and no spurious correlation • Correlation never means causation • Independent variable must precede dependent variable • Must not be attributed to an underlying third variable • how to read a table (p. 125) o Use Common sense • how not to do research (p. 128) o Choose a biased sample o Ask biased questions o List biased choices o Discard undesirable results o Misunderstand the subjects’world
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