SOC101 - Chapter 12.docx

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SOC 101
Christopher Mele

11/14/13 Chapter 12: Race & Ethnicity Ethnic Groups • People often confuse the terms race and ethnic group • Race refers to Biological Characteristics (sex) • Ethnicity refers to Cultural Characteristics (gender) o CommonAncestry o Cultural Heritage o Nations of Origin Race and Ethnicity • Race assumption/biological distinction • Ethnicity cultural distinction o Both are social constructions o Neither have basis in empirical fact • Defining race o Abiological distinction with no basis in any empirical fact o Societal organization of the allocation of Minority and Dominant Groups • Minority Group – People singled out for unequal treatment o Minority group not necessarily numerical minority (in particular) • Emergence of Minority Groups o Expansion of political boundaries o Migration • Dominant Group – Group with most: o Power (control over other, do bidding), privileges, highest social status (hierarchy) o Dominant group does the discriminating Minority – Group Characteristics • Receives unequal treatment • Identifiable by distinguishing physical or cultural traits that are held in low esteem • Feels a sense of peoplehood, group solidarity…self-identifying one another • Membership is an ascribed status • Group members practice endogamy (marrying within one’s racial group) The Creation of Subordinate Group Status • Subordinate groups emerge through migration, annexation, and colonialism. 1. Migration – the general term used to describe any transfer of population. Immigration occurs when someone enters one country from another country  Although people may migrate because they want to, leaving the home country is not always voluntary. Conflict or war has displaced people throughout human history. In the 20 century, huge population movements were caused by two world wars; revolutions in Spain, Hungary, and Cuba; the partition of British India; conflicts in SoutheastAsia 2. Annexation – the process where nations, particularly during wars or as a result of war, incorporate or attach land. This new land is contiguous to the nation, as in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803  The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the MexicanAmerican War in 1848 gave the United States California, Utah, Nevada, most of New Mexico, and parts ofArizona, Wyoming and Colorado.Although the indigenous people in some of this large territory 3. Colonialism - has been the most common way for one group to dominate another. Colonialism is the maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over people by a foreign power for an extended period. Colonialism is rule by outsiders but, unlike annexation, does not involve actual incorporation into a dominant people’s nation. The long control exercised by the British Empire over much of North America, parts ofAfrica, and India is an example of colonial domination.  Societies gain power over a foreign land through military strength, sophisticated political organization, and investment capital. Relations between the colonial nation and the colonized people are those similar to those between a dominant group and exploited subordinate groups. The colonial subjects generally are limited to menial jobs and the wages from their labor. The natural resources their land benefit the members of the ruling class The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status • Extermination – the most extreme way of dealing with a subor
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