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Soc 101 Exam 2 Study Guide.docx

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SOC 101
Professor Hatton

Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 4 Social structures and social institutions [definitions] [what are the institutions?] • Social framework that directs and limits our behavior  Social facts (Gender, race, class, etc.)  Social location o Culture o Social class o Social status o Roles o Groups o Social institutions Social locationoffers both opportunities and limitations • Where one stands in a society is a very important aspect in being afforded certain options others do not have Macrosociology [functionalism, conflict theory] vs. Microsociology [Symbolic Interactionism] • Macrosociology o Functionalists and conflict theoristsFocus on the actions of larger entitites and how they affect the individual  In conflict theory Bourgeois vs. Proletariat and how they interact  In functionalismHow these things work together to form a functioning society o Focuses on SOCIAL STRUCTURES • Microsociology o Focuses on SOCIAL INTERACTIONS between people o Primary focus of symbolic interactionsThe why and what of interactions between people mean Examples of social structures shaping individual behavior: Zimbardo, “Quiet Rage” Edin & Kefalas, Promises I Can Keep Chambliss, Saints & Roughnecks  Quiet Rage Prison StudyShowed that prisoners and guards took on the persona of the part they were playing and acted accordingly  Why poor teens have babiesImpoverished mothers viewed it as a way to prove their worth in a sense by being a good mother • Wealthier families viewed it as a burden and decided against it until they were more financially stable  “Saints and Roughnecks” Two groups of high school boys • Saints8 white middle class boys from Seattle suburbs o Were the most misbehaved o Parents were unaware of their delinquency o Lied to get out of school, would drive to Seattle (drinking, smoking, screwing around)  Only got stopped by the cops twiceBecause of their social status and appearance they were polite and talked their way out of it o All did well in school • Roughnecks White boys from a poor families o Always in trouble with police o Stole, drank, fought, etc. o Each member arrested and 2 sent away o Couldn’t lie their way out of school like saints o Lows gradesGot passed anyway  ConclusionDifferent class backgrounds leads to different expectations • How they were able to engage in delinquent behavior (i.e. had cars) • Showed importance of social location Components of social structure: culture, social class, social status, roles, groups, social institutions (know each) Status (occupy a status)Position that a person occupies in society • Define who and what we are in relation to other people o Could include being a mother, father, professor, student, etc. Status set • Refers to all the statuses and positions a person occupies Master statusCuts across all other statuses o Can be ascribed or achieved (see below) • Sex or genderWe will always carry male/female status o (e.g. Female body builders don’t “look like women” and must strive to maintain their Master status as a woman) Achieved status • Involuntary • (e.g. Athlete, thief, student, something you can choose to be) Ascribed status • Involuntary • (e.g. Race, sex, teenager, something that we cannot choose to be/control) Status InconsistencyMismatch of statuses • Transgender—Conflict between gender identity and biological sex • How one should act Roles (play a role)Behavior, obligation and privileges for a certain status • People OCCUPY a status • People PLAY a role Role conflictWhat is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another status • (e.g. Being a good worker conflicting with being a good Role strainConflicts that someone feels within a role • ( E.g. Being a good managerCan’t be too friendly but can’t be too authoritative) o Different demands of status conflict with each other Role exitDisengaging from roles one had a different status Gemeinschaft and gesellschaft (text) • Gemeinschaft Atype of society in which life is intimate.Acommunity in which everyone knows everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness • GesellschaftAtype of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual accomplishments, and self-interest Stereotypes (text) • Our assumptions of what people are like • Can be based on race, sex, etc. Goffman, dramaturgy (text) • Erving Goffman developed dramaturgyanalyzing everyday life in terms of a stage o Life is a stage and we play a role both on stage (In public) and “backstage” (In Private) Ethnomethodology (text) • The study of how people use commonsense understanding to make sense of the world o Uses BACKGROUNDASSUMPTIONSYour ideas about the way life is and how things ought to work Social construction of reality (text) • The use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real Total institutions (Prisons, convents, mental hospital military) • Everything is in the same place and same authority • The group is a single unit • Activities highly scheduled and determined by the rules • Asingle, rational plan exists to fulfill the goals of the institution Functionalism and social institutions; functional requisites: • Functionalists and conflict theorists disagree on social institutions o Functionalists say social institutions are positive and exist to meet basic needs. o Functionalists identify 5 FUNCTIONAL REQUISITES (basic needs) that each society must meet if it is to survive: - Replace membersHave kids, recruit new members, etc. • The family gives the newcomer a sense of belonging by providing a lineagean account of how one is related to others - Socialize new membersteaching the norms of the group to new members - Produce and distribute goods/servicesEvery society must produce and distribute basic resources • To do so societies develop economic institutiona means of producing goods and services as well as a routine ways of distributing them - Preserve orderSocieties face 2 threats of disorderOne internal, the potential for chaos, and the other external the possibility of attack o Societies must protect themselves from this they develop certain ways to police themselves - Provide a sense of purposeIncentive for people to sacrifice self interest • (I.e. Religion providing purpose by answering questions) Conflict theorists and social institutions: Say they are negative and perpetuate inequality • Meant to maintain status • How social institutions produce male advantage and female inequality • How inequality is reproduced on a macro level - institutions preserve privilege o Believe that social institutions favor the upper class and help them maintain their status Film: Jesus Camp 1) From a functionalist perspective, what are the social functions of this camp? That is, sociologically speaking, what needs does this camp meet for the group’s members? (You will recall the list of functional requisites that functionalists believe social institutions Fulfill.) • Gives members a sense of belonging Using religion to answer moral, ethical, and existential questions o Provides them with a lineage provides many generations of followers o Socialize new members Teaches children the norms and beliefs of the religion 2) How would a conflict theorist view this camp? Who has the power here, and what are their goals? • The camp is a breeding ground of negativity and keeps the followers oppressed under the authority of their deity • The power is maintained by the the group leaders via their God and their goals are to indoctrinate the children and keep them in their current roles by continuing to follow the path their leaders want Chapter 8 Deviance and Social Control • DevianceAny violation of norms Perception is key (reaction) • The violation of norms is based on other people’s reactions to these violations Deviance & crime are relative; definitions of each • Deviance is a general term.ANY violation of norms • CrimeSpecific forms of deviance o The violation of rules that have been written into law Stigma, 3 types: physical, personal, tribal; Erving Goffman • StigmaBlemishes that discredit one’s claim to non-deviant attitude o Goffman said stigmas are characteristics that discredit people o Could include violations of norms of appearance (Birthmark, big nose, strange features) or of ability (blind, deaf, ill, etc.) o Stigma could become a person’s master status • THREE TYPES: o PhysicalHaving scars, being obese,AnorexiaAn example of relativity of stigmas  In models it’s good to be anorexic  To other people it is a dangerous disease o PersonalMental illness, addiction, etc. o TribalTraits (Imagined or real) which deviate from social norms  Are NOT static (i.e.Always changing) Shaming/degradation ceremony (text) • Harold Garfinkel coined the term degradation ceremonyan extreme form of shaming o Could result in moral outcast or complete removal from a group Symbolic Interactionists: In terms of how group and membership affect individual behavior 3 main theories about crime and deviation Differential association theory- People deviate or conform based on groups. • Based on groupsDeviation is LEARNED • Symbolic interactionist would examine the people deviants hang out with • Delinquents more likely to come from troubled families o Group associations DO NOT determine individual behavior o BUT association DO teach deviation • DrawbackDifficult to get causality o Correlation ≠Correlation • Being associated with groups could be a spurious correlationSomething else could be driving the relationship [Social] Control theory; social bonds [attachment, commitment, involvement, belief] • If people have a stake in society they won’t deviate • People will conform because an effective system of inner and outter controls o InnerConscience, integrity, Right and wrong o OuterPeople in one’s life- family, friends, teachers, etc. • Stronger bonds to social structure= Higher resistance to criminal activity • Based on Four types of social bonds o Feelings of attachmentFeeling a part of something o Sense of commitmenthaving a stake in society o Sense of involvementInvesting time and energy into legitimate activity o Belief that deviant behavior is wrong in a given group Labeling theory; process of labeling (PP slide 5), deviance amplification; techniques of neutralization • Labeling theoryLabeling a person deviant makes them more likely to be deviant o Grounded in social Interactionalism o People’s reactions become key aspect of their behavior o We are how people perceive us o Once we are stigmatized we internalize this stigma • Process: Initial criminal actDetection/Prosecution by criminal justice systemGiven a criminal labelCreation of new public identityAcceptance of label ( This is the key step of becoming a deviant) • DeviantAmplification Once given the label as a deviant “I might as well be a criminal I already have the label” o Identity therefore transformed by label • Some people resist labeling and Identified 5 resistances to labelsTechniques of Neutralization o Denial of responsibilityIt wasn’t me o Denial of injuryNobody got hurt o Denial of victimThey deserved it o Condemnations of condemnersWho are you to judge me? o Appeal to loyaltyI was sticking up for my friend/ family Functionalists; functions and dysfunctions of deviance • Society works together for order and stability (like organs in a body) • Believe crime and deviance is natural and serves a function • Crime is goodIt clarifies what IS and IS NOT right and allowed • Crime promotes social unityFeel a sense of rightness in a community • Deviance can promote social change when enough people deviate o Can force a group to rethink certain things (e.g. opinion of tattoos) Robert MertonFounded STRAIN THEORY Strain Theory and motivation for crime, cultural structure vs. social structure • Motivation of crime derived from society • Societal forces pressure crime • Cultural StructureGoals/ What is desirable in a society (i.e. wealth) • Social structure(Founded by Robert Merton)means of achieving goals o Going to school, getting job, saving money o NOT everyone has access to these means o Means are stratified o When a society cannot provide these means Crime and deviance increase Anomie/sense of normlessness • AnomieWhen main strea
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