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Midterm

SOC 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Medicalization, Media Bias, Tim Wise

11 pages106 viewsSpring 2014

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 101
Professor
Professor Hatton
Study Guide
Midterm

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Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 4
Social structures and social institutions [definitions] [what are the institutions?]
Social framework that directs and limits our behavior
Social facts (Gender, race, class, etc.)
Social location
oCulture
oSocial class
oSocial status
oRoles
oGroups
oSocial institutions
Social locationoffers both opportunities and limitations
Where one stands in a society is a very important aspect in being afforded certain options others do not
have
Macrosociology [functionalism, conflict theory] vs. Microsociology [Symbolic Interactionism]
Macrosociology
oFunctionalists and conflict theoristsFocus on the actions of larger entitites and how they affect the
individual
In conflict theory Bourgeois vs. Proletariat and how they interact
In functionalismHow these things work together to form a functioning society
oFocuses on SOCIAL STRUCTURES
Microsociology
oFocuses on SOCIAL INTERACTIONS between people
oPrimary focus of symbolic interactionsThe why and what of interactions between people mean
Examples of social structures shaping individual behavior:
Zimbardo, “Quiet Rage”
Edin & Kefalas, Promises I Can Keep
Chambliss, Saints & Roughnecks
Quiet Rage Prison StudyShowed that prisoners and guards took on the persona of the
part they were playing and acted accordingly
Why poor teens have babiesImpoverished mothers viewed it as a way to prove their
worth in a sense by being a good mother
Wealthier families viewed it as a burden and decided against it until they were
more financially stable
“Saints and Roughnecks” Two groups of high school boys
Saints8 white middle class boys from Seattle suburbs
oWere the most misbehaved
oParents were unaware of their delinquency
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oLied to get out of school, would drive to Seattle (drinking, smoking,
screwing around)
Only got stopped by the cops twiceBecause of their social
status and appearance they were polite and talked their way
out of it
oAll did well in school
Roughnecks White boys from a poor families
oAlways in trouble with police
oStole, drank, fought, etc.
oEach member arrested and 2 sent away
oCouldn’t lie their way out of school like saints
oLows gradesGot passed anyway
ConclusionDifferent class backgrounds leads to different expectations
How they were able to engage in delinquent behavior (i.e. had cars)
Showed importance of social location
Components of social structure: culture, social class, social status, roles, groups, social institutions (know each)
Status (occupy a status)Position that a person occupies in society
Define who and what we are in relation to other people
oCould include being a mother, father, professor, student, etc.
Status set
Refers to all the statuses and positions a person occupies
Master statusCuts across all other statuses
oCan be ascribed or achieved (see below)
Sex or genderWe will always carry male/female status
o(e.g. Female body builders don’t “look like women” and must strive to maintain their
Master status as a woman)
Achieved status
Involuntary
(e.g. Athlete, thief, student, something you can choose to be)
Ascribed status
Involuntary
(e.g. Race, sex, teenager, something that we cannot choose to be/control)
Status InconsistencyMismatch of statuses
Transgender—Conflict between gender identity and biological sex
How one should act
Roles (play a role)Behavior, obligation and privileges for a certain status
People OCCUPY a status
People PLAY a role
Role conflictWhat is expected of us in one status is incompatible with what is expected of us in another
status
(e.g. Being a good worker conflicting with being a good
Role strainConflicts that someone feels within a role
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( E.g. Being a good managerCan’t be too friendly but can’t be too authoritative)
oDifferent demands of status conflict with each other
Role exitDisengaging from roles one had a different status
Gemeinschaft and gesellschaft (text)
Gemeinschaft A type of society in which life is intimate. A community in which everyone knows
everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness
GesellschaftA type of society that is dominated by impersonal relationships, individual
accomplishments, and self-interest
Stereotypes (text)
Our assumptions of what people are like
Can be based on race, sex, etc.
Goffman, dramaturgy (text)
Erving Goffman developed dramaturgyanalyzing everyday life in terms of a stage
oLife is a stage and we play a role both on stage (In public) and “backstage” (In Private)
Ethnomethodology (text)
The study of how people use commonsense understanding to make sense of the world
oUses BACKGROUND ASSUMPTIONSYour ideas about the way life is and how things ought to
work
Social construction of reality (text)
The use of background assumptions and life experiences to define what is real
Total institutions (Prisons, convents, mental hospital military)
Everything is in the same place and same authority
The group is a single unit
Activities highly scheduled and determined by the rules
A single, rational plan exists to fulfill the goals of the institution
Functionalism and social institutions; functional requisites:
Functionalists and conflict theorists disagree on social institutions
oFunctionalists say social institutions are positive and exist to meet basic needs.
oFunctionalists identify 5 FUNCTIONAL REQUISITES (basic needs) that each society must meet
if it is to survive:
- Replace membersHave kids, recruit new members, etc.
The family gives the newcomer a sense of belonging by providing a lineagean account of how one is
related to others
- Socialize new membersteaching the norms of the group to new members
- Produce and distribute goods/servicesEvery society must produce and distribute basic resources
To do so societies develop economic institutiona means of producing goods and services as well as a
routine ways of distributing them
- Preserve orderSocieties face 2 threats of disorderOne internal, the potential for chaos, and the other
external the possibility of attack
oSocieties must protect themselves from this they develop certain ways to police themselves
- Provide a sense of purposeIncentive for people to sacrifice self interest
(I.e. Religion providing purpose by answering questions)
Conflict theorists and social institutions: Say they are negative and perpetuate inequality
Meant to maintain status
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